Myanmar civil war (2021–present)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Myanmar civil war
Part of the Myanmar conflict

Military situation as of 15 February 2024:

State Administration Council and allies

  Tatmadaw and allies

National Unity Government and allies

  People's Defence Force and allies
  Karenni resistance forces
  Chinland resistance forces and allies

Other combatants

For a detailed accurate up-to-date map, see here

For a list of engagements, see here
Date5 May 2021–present
(2 years, 9 months, 2 weeks and 3 days)
Location
Myanmar (with spillovers in neighbouring countries)
Status Ongoing
Territorial
changes
  • Tatmadaw's stable control drops to between 72–220 out of 330 townships, though continues to control most major population centers[6][7]
  • Two district-level or higher towns have come under the control of the anti-junta forces[8][9]
  • State of Chinland declared[10]
Belligerents

Myanmar National Unity Government

Allied ethnic armed organisations:

Other organizations:

State Administration Council

Aligned ethnic armed organisations:

Commanders and leaders
Strength
100,000 (PDF, February 2024 estimate)[13] and more than 100,000 (LDF and allied ethnic armed organisations, EAOs) about 150,000 personnel; 70,000 combat troops (Tatmadaw, May 2023 estimate)[14]
Casualties and losses
  • 45,264 total killed (per ACLED, 12 January 2024)[15]
  • 4,218 civilians killed, 25,489 arrested (per AAPP, 1 December 2023)[16]
  • 2,330,200+ internally displaced, 95,600 refugees per United Nations 15 December 2023[17][18]
  • 11,400 residences destroyed (per ISP–Myanmar and Data for Myanmar, as of 12 May 2022)[19]
  • 12,000 civilian properties estimated burnt or destroyed since February 2022 (per OCHA, 31 May 2022)[20]
  • 440 houses and buildings sealed off by the Junta (per AAPP, February 2022).[21]
  • Two killed and 17 injured inside Bangladesh[22]

The Myanmar civil war,[c] also called the Myanmar Spring Revolution or People's Defensive War, is an ongoing civil war following Myanmar's long-running insurgencies, which escalated significantly in response to the 2021 military coup d'état and the subsequent violent crackdown on anti-coup protests.[23][24] As of January 2024, thousands of soldiers have surrendered without a fight, including six generals of the Tatmadaw.[25] A group of observers write that the Tatmadaw's forces remain "formidable and well-equipped", with "external allies and economic resources".[26][27]

As of March 2023, the United Nations (UN) estimated that since the coup in February 2021, 17.6 million people in Myanmar required humanitarian assistance, while 1.6 million were internally displaced, and over 55,000 civilian buildings had been destroyed.[28] UNOCHA said that over 40,000 people had fled into neighboring countries such as India and Thailand.[29]

As of October 2023, the Tatmadaw controlled under 40% of the country, although they maintain that they still control around two thirds of the country's 330 townships.[7][30] In the second half of 2023, Chinland Defense Forces in the state of Chin had captured a majority of the state, with a few holdouts in urban areas and along the India-Myanmar border remaining. In October 2023, the Tatmadaw began facing manpower issues, with desertions and low morale being extremely common, coinciding with the PDF and Three Brotherhood Alliance's major rebel offensive in the west of the country, Operation 1027, which was successful in taking 80 bases, 220 junta positions and several towns by 28 November 2023.[31]

October and November 2023 saw a series of counter-offensives, including Operation 1111 besieging the state capital of Loikaw and renewed conflict by anti-junta forces in northern Rakhine and Chin states.[32][33][34] In Operation 1027, anti-junta forces seized the district-level town of Kawlin, Sagaing Region (later recaptured by junta forces) in early November 2023 as well as Laukkai, the capital of Kokang Self-Administered Zone, in early January 2024.[35][9]

Background[edit]

Internal conflict in Myanmar[edit]

Insurgencies have been ongoing in Myanmar since 1948 and have largely been ethnic-based. Communist insurgencies and the Karen National Union were the primary opposition actors to the central government.[36][37] Over the 20th century, several prominent ethnic armed organisations (EAOs) rose and fell in influence and control. Larger rebel factions such as the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) formed in response to Ne Win's 1962 Burmese coup d'état and its increased political repression.[38] The 8888 Uprising, in response to the totalitarian rule of Ne Win, resulted in some of the first modern Bamar militias forming from protestors heading to areas under ethnic rebel control.

In the aftermath of the 8888 Uprising, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), later known as the State Peace and Development Council, formed a military junta. Myanmar's military, known better as the Tatmadaw, severely weakened ethnic insurgent groups, destroying most of their bases and strongholds through the 1990s.[39] By the time of the 2011–2015 Myanmar political reforms, the junta had regained control of many long-time rebel strongholds including Kokang and Karen State.[40][41]

The 2008 Constitution created self-administered zones with increased autonomy as part of its reforms. In 2015, the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) was signed between eight EAOs and the central government.[42] However, by 2018 the NCA began to fall apart, due to alleged violations of the agreement by Tatmadaw soldiers entering EAO territories to build roads.[43] Many non-signatories continued the conflict. In late 2016, four non-signatories of the NCA formed the Northern Alliance, including the KIA and Arakan Army, engaged in war with the central government and other EAOs.[44]

2021 Myanmar coup d'état and protests[edit]

On the morning of 1 February 2021, the Tatmadaw successfully deposed the elected Myanmar government in a coup, forming a military junta. Former president Win Myint, Aung San Suu Kyi, and several other members of the National League for Democracy were detained during early morning raids and Min Aung Hlaing was placed as the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services and de facto ruler of the nation.[45]

The exact motives behind the coup are unclear. In the leadup to the coup, the Tatmadaw claimed that the 2020 general elections had 8.6 million voter irregularities, but presented no evidence. The coup may have been a way to re-establish the military's long-reigning power over the country which ended ten years prior.[46]

The bloody repression of anti-coup demonstrations led to the creation of armed groups to fight the State Administration Council, the military junta. Gathered under the name of the People's Defence Force (PDF) and the orders of the National Unity Government (NUG), formed by parliamentarians in office before the coup d'état, the PDF and the NUG officially declared a "defensive war" against the military regime in September 2021.[47] The ACLED estimated that as of 29 July 2022, around 23,521 people in total had been killed in the violence following the 2021 coup.[48][49]

In the months following the coup, the opposition began to coalesce around the National Unity Government, which launched an offensive against the State Administration Council (SAC), the military junta. By 2022, the opposition controlled substantial, though sparsely populated, territory.[50][51][52] In many villages and towns, the junta's attacks drove out tens of thousands of people. On the second anniversary of the coup, in February 2023, the chairman of the SAC, Min Aung Hlaing, admitted to losing stable control over "more than a third" of townships. Independent observers note the real number is likely far higher, with as few as 72 out of 330 townships remaining under the control of the Tatmadaw, the military forces aligned with the junta. However, the townships under the control of the junta still included all major population centres.[6]

Prelude[edit]

Armed protestors[edit]

By late March 2021, dozens of protesters had travelled to Myanmar's border areas to enlist in and train under one of the country's many insurgent groups,[53] elevating the risk of a countrywide civil war.[54] The Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw also proposed the formation of a "federal armed force" to combat the military,[55] and in late March the Arakan Army (AA) threatened to end its ceasefire with the military should the latter "persist in massacring civilians".[56]

During late March, protesters increasingly began arming themselves with homemade weapons in an attempt to defend themselves against attacks by the military. Clashes with soldiers and IED attacks against administrative buildings and police stations became more common and protesters slowly became armed resistance.[57]

After about thirty years of dormancy, the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed wing of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB), became active again on 15 March 2021 when communist fighters crossed from China into Kachin State where the KIA would provide them weapons.[58] and by August 2021, the CPB established a new armed wing to fight against the junta.[59] Over the next two years, the PLA would grow its presence in Tanintharyi Region, where they fight alongside the PDF, claiming to have 1,000 active troops in December 2023.[60]

Renewed ethnic conflict[edit]

The unrest across the nation and the increased need for junta troops in previously peaceful urban areas strengthened EAOs. The KIA had already been on the offensive since February and seized the military's base of Alaw Bum near the town of Laiza on 25 March 2021.[61] The next day, the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) attacked a military base, killing 10 junta soldiers and taking others hostages in their first attack since the protests began.[62] The following day saw the 2021 Kalay clashes where protestors openly used homemade weapons against soldiers for the first time, targeting security forces attacking a protest camp.[63]

The military junta declared that it would cease all military operations on 29 March 2021 and hold bilateral negotiations with ethnic armed groups. However, the KIA continued its offensives stating that the Myanmar Army had not ceased operations.[61] Seven insurgent groups who were signatories to the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement aligned themselves with the National Unity Government (NUG), including the All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF) and the Karen National Union (KNU).[64] The Northern Alliance, comprising the Arakan Army, the Ta'ang National Liberation Army and the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army, attacked a police station in Naungmon, Shan State, killing at least 10 police officers and indicating their disregard of the junta's call for a ceasefire.[65] In response, on 11 April 2021, the junta military launched a counter-attack to recapture the Alaw Bum base using airstrikes and ground troops, but had to retreat amidst heavy casualties.[66]

On 26 April, the Battle of Mindat became one of the first large-scale conflicts arising from the 2021 coup. The Chinland Defense Force (CDF) began armed resistance in Mindat, Chin State and the junta declared martial law.[67] After a soldier allegedly fired at protestors, fighting between the two sides erupted.[68] The battle lasted four days, killing 30 junta soldiers and left Mindat abandoned as more than 10,000 people fled the area.[69]

Onset of formal resistance and war, May 2021[edit]

On 16 April 2021, pro-democracy politician Min Ko Naing announced the formation of the National Unity Government, with members of ethnic minority groups in senior roles. As part of the announcement he said that ousted leaders Aung San Suu Kyi and Win Myint would retain their positions and asked the international community to recognize their government over the junta.[70][71] Throughout April, informal clashes with protestors intensified, such as in Taze when protesters fought back against soldiers with hunting rifles and firebombs on 8 April.[72]

The National Unity Government then declared the formation of an armed wing, the People's Defence Force (PDF) – on 5 May 2021, a date that is often cited as the start of the civil war. The PDF and was formed to protect its supporters from military junta attacks and as a first step towards a Federal Union Army.[73] The PDF clashed with the Tatmadaw in the town of Muse on 23 May, killing at least 13 members of Myanmar's security forces.[74]

Entrance to Loikaw

In early June, fighting erupted in Myawaddy District where the military and Karen Border Guard Forces battled against a combined Karen and PDF force, leaving dozens of junta troops killed.[75] Members of the Karenni PDF in Kayah State also captured and destroyed several Tatmadaw outposts near the state capital, Loikaw.[76] Towards the end of May, the Tatmadaw used artillery and helicopters to strike PDF positions in Loikaw and Demoso.[77] On 30 May, the KIA joined the PDF in a battle against junta troops in Katha Township, killing eight regime soldiers. Fighting also sprouted up in other Kachin State townships, including Putao, Hpakant and Momauk.[78]

While there were less conflict deaths between May and September, there were still many armed clashes and a spike in early June.[79] On 22 June, junta forces using armoured vehicles raided a safehouse of the PDF in Mandalay, detaining several fighters.[80] Myanmar security forces killed at least 25 people in another raid in Tabayin.[81] These attacks occurred in Central Myanmar, also known as Anyar, an area that had rarely seen armed violence in recent times.[82]

Declaration of war[edit]

On 7 September 2021, the NUG declared a state of emergency across the nation and launched what they called the "people's defensive war" against the military junta.[83][84] The declaration of war increased the number of skirmishes and clashes between PDF militias, EAOs and the military junta across the country.[85]

According to the NUG in September 2021, over 1,700 junta soldiers had been killed and 630 wounded in fighting during the preceding three months.[86] Several major clashes took place from September to October in Chin State, Sagaing Region, Magwe Region, Kayah State and Shan State.[87][88]

By late September 2021, 8,000 residents of Thantlang town, Chin state, fled to Mizoram, India after their houses were set ablaze by the junta army.[89] Ambushes by anti-junta forces in Shan State also killed at least 20 soldiers.[90] On 16 November 2021, junta forces overran and captured the base camp of Kalay PDF in southwestern Sagaing Region, killing 2 fighters and capturing 9 Kalay PDF medics.[91]

In October, junta-controlled media reported that at least 406 junta informants had been killed and 285 wounded since 1 February in targeted attacks by resistance forces.[92]

Initial conflict[edit]

2021–2022 dry season campaigns[edit]

According to analyst Matthew Arnold, the civil war's momentum passed a critical threshold by the end of the 2022 dry season where the revolutionary sentiment had grown into a broader social and armed resistance that the junta could no longer suppress.[93] Towards the end of 2021, direct armed clashes gave way to more bombings, explosive devices and landmines. The PDF, with the strong ground support from local communities, attacked soft government targets like police stations, outposts and junta-owned businesses. Through these, the resistance became more organised as they seized weapons, got training and communicated between units through the help of the NUG and allied EAOs.[79] According to the Karen National Union, roughly 2,200 junta soldiers and militiamen were killed in the first half of 2022.[94]

Southeastern Myanmar[edit]

Moe Bye Reservoir

On 17 November 2021, dozens of junta soldiers ambushed an outpost of the Moebye PDF in Pekon Township, Shan State, forcing outnumbered PDF soldiers to retreat.[95] At least four junta soldiers were killed during a four-day clash in Hpruso Township with the KNDF and Karenni Army.[96]

On 14 December, around 200 Tatmadaw troops searched the Karen National Union (KNU)-controlled town of Lay Kay Kaw Myothit near the Thai border, arresting people suspected to be activists or members of the PDF.[97] On 20 December, Tatmadaw forces burned down nineteen houses in Kunnar, Loikaw Township after taking it from the KNDF the week before.[98]

On 24 December, more than 35 people were massacred when they were ambushed by junta troops outside the village of Mo So in Kayah State.[99] Two staff members of the aid group Save the Children were among those killed.[100] The United Nations Security Council condemned the attack and called for a "thorough and transparent investigation" into the incident.[101][102]

Throughout February and March 2022, the junta carried out repeated air strikes against civilian targets in villages in Shan, Kayin and Kayah States. On 17 February alone, around 20 junta soldiers and 20 resistance fighters were killed in clashes in Mobye, southern Shan State.[103] Witnesses described soldiers systematically looting jewelry, cash, vehicles, and other valuables. Amnesty International reported these actions as Collective Punishment against the country's ethnic minorities.[104]

Fighting broke out in parts of Loikaw on 14 April.[105] The number of refugees on the Thai border increased after increased combat in Kayin State.[106] On 15 April, junta soldiers suffered at least 30 casualties after being pushed back by the KNLA at the battle for Lay Kay Kaw.[107]

Central Myanmar[edit]

The Dry Zone historical heartland of Myanmar had rarely seen armed violence in the modern conflict in Myanmar since 1948 as a predominantly Buddhist and Bamar farming region. The fighting in the Anyar theater of Central Myanmar starting in 2021 changed this trajectory. Without the presence of EAOs, the Bamar PDF groups are characterized as local cells acting autonomously towards simple and directed towards the 2021 coup. In the 2021-2022 dry season, the PDFs began to work more closely together and coordinate towards larger goals.[108] In early 2022, resistance forces were fighting in Monywa, the capital of Sagaing Region.[109] Resistance attacks on the junta saw the junta retaliate on civilians[110] Targeted personnel attacks increased, killing various junta personnel and destroying equipment.[111] The PDF also suffered losses, with 12 fighters killed in a battle in Khin-U Township.[112] Many cities saw violent clashes during 2022's Union Day.[113] Mandalay also saw fighting, with casualties on both sides.[114]

Northern Myanmar[edit]

Throughout the 2021-2022 dry season, various groups in Northern Myanmar carried out ambushes against military outposts and convoys. The Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the PDF attacked convoys in Mohnyin[115] and Hpakant Townships.[116] In October, they also partially shut down gold mining operations run by junta allies.[117] After an ambush near Shwegu, the Tatmadaw responded with airstrikes and ground attacks against KIA bases in Hpakant and Mohnyin Townships.[118] In early February, the KIA assaulted several military bases in Kachin and Shan States, reportedly burning one in Hpakant Township down. The junta responded by increasing airstrikes and send reinforcements to the area.[119]

The Chinland Defense Force (CDF) and the Chin National Army raided and ambushed outposts and convoys in Matupi[120] and Mindat Townships.[121] In December, the Tatmadaw recaptured the town of Thantlang from the CDF in an offensive that destroyed over a quarter of the town's buildings.[122]

Yangon and other regions[edit]

During this time, there were several cases of guerilla warfare across Myanmar utilizing homemade explosives, including several accidents killing resistance fighters. On 17 June 2021, an army vehicle exploded in Tamwe Township, Yangon, allegedly killing several military personnel.[123] On 14 December, Tatmadaw troops captured 12 suspected resistance fighters after several bombs accidentally exploded in Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon.[124]

Urban warfare became less practical so resistance forces began targeting junta-aligned officials. According to junta-aligned sources, 367 junta-appointed officials were assassinated in targeted attacks between February 2021 and February 2022.[125] Resistance forces also began targeting the homes of junta pilots in Yangon in response to airstrikes on civilians.[126]

Fighting also occurred in other Bamar-majority regions. On 31 January 2022, at least 36 junta soldiers were reportedly killed in ambushes over three days in Magwe, Sagaing and Tanintharyi regions and Chin, Shan and Kayah states.[127]

2022 monsoon decrease in intensity[edit]

The intensity of fighting decreased during the monsoon season.[85] Resistance forces were advantaged by the rainfall as the junta could not carry out air strikes as easily.[128] In June, resistance groups achieved control of 40–50% of the country. Arakan Army claimed to administer most of Rakhine State with an independent government. Chin National Front and CDF made plans to establish a new government. The KIA and the Wa State, a neutral de facto independent region of Myanmar, consolidated expanded territories.[129] However, the Myanmar Army retained tight control of almost every city in Myanmar and most of the country's natural resources, including important jade mines.[130] During this time, the PDF were also unable to move beyond rural guerilla tactics. Duwa Lashi La, acting president of the NUG, cited the lack of weaponry and international support as reasons for the prolonged conflict.[50]

On 31 May 2022, a bombing killed one person and injured nine others near the Sule Pagoda in Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar. State media accused the People's Defence Force of being responsible for the attack, which the PDF denied.[131] A July clash in Pekon Township, Shan State also killed around 40 junta soldiers and 11 PDF fighters.[132]

Massacres and executions[edit]

The military deployed its time-tested counterinsurgency methods in what has been called a "hammer approach" of bombing and burning villages and massacring civilians to flush out rebel groups. However, the approach was ineffective because they were unable to consolidate power or deter the resistance.[50]

Myanmar military forces executed at least 37 villagers in the Mon Taing Pin massacre in May 2022 after shelling the village of Mondaingbin, Sagaing Region with heavy artillery.[133] The junta forces entered the local Buddhist monastery, conscripted young male villagers briefly before executing them and other captives by a stupa.[134]

On 23 July 2022, the State Administration Council announced that it had executed four political prisoners, including Zayar Thaw and Kyaw Min Yu, which was the first use of capital punishment in Myanmar since the late 1980s.[135] The men had been accused of helping the resistance movement.[136] The event was widely seen as a provocation to escalate the ongoing conflict by the Tatmadaw.[137] The international community, including United Nations Secretary-General, the G7 nations and the European Union strongly condemned the executions.[138][136]

On 16 September 2022, the Burmese military killed 11 children and wounded another 17 in the Let Yet Kone massacre, as part of an airborne strike conducted against a school in Let Yet Kone, Sagaing Region.[139] The military claimed that the village was harbouring resistance fighters from the KIA and PDF.[140] The attack was widely condemned by the international community, including the United Nations and European Union.[141][142]

Later in September 2022, retired Brigadier General Ohn Thwin, mentor to State Administration Council vice-chairman Senior General Soe Win, was assassinated by anti-regime guerilla groups in Yangon. This assassination caused an increase in security on high-ranking junta personnel.[143]

Breakdown of Arakan ceasefire, monsoon 2022[edit]

In early 2022, the Arakan Army and the junta clashed again in northern Rakhine State. On 8 February, Arakan Army and junta forces clashed on at least two occasions in Maungdaw in Rakhine State. Fighting broke out on 4 February when junta troops carried out a sneak attack on an AA outpost near the Letpan Mountains northeast of Mee Taik Village, killing an AA sentry, according to AA spokesman Khaing Thukha. Three hours of clashes were also reported on 6 February. The clashes raised fears of a breakdown of the informal ceasefire between the AA and the military which had been in place since November 2020.[144] Further clashes in northern Maungdaw on the night of 7 February killed two civilians.[145] Several junta troops, including a major, were also killed in the attack.[146]

The Bangladesh-Myanmar border

Between June and August 2022, the informal ceasefire reached in late 2020 between the Arakan Army (AA) and the junta broke down. The AA had consolidated control during this period, avoided the initial violence of the war, and introduced many public services and local administrators in northern Rakhine state. With the military's attention diverted to the increasing resistance elsewhere and increasing popular support for an alliance with the NUG, the AA sought to expand its influence into southern Rakhine.[147] Rhetoric from AA leader Twan Mrat Naing in June grew more provocative with military spokespeople stating that AA was inviting conflict.[148] Armed clashes resumed in July after the junta launched an airstrike against an AA base in Kayin State, killing 6 AA soldiers. AA retaliated in Maungdaw Township and western Chin State in late July and early August. By late August, land travel to northern Rakhine required passing a series of checkpoints and all public transport ships ceased operation due to river and land blockades.[149]

On 16 August 2022, two mortar shells fired by the Myanmar Army landed in a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh, killing one man and injuring five others. Myanmar Army helicopters allegedly entered Bangladeshi air space to attack the Arakan Army and fired a shell within Bangladeshi air space. Two days later, Bangladesh summoned Myanmar ambassador Aung Kyaw Moe to strongly protest the land and airspace violations.[150][151] In October 2022, Bangladeshi Foreign Minister AK Abdul Momen made a statement that border bombings by Myanmar stopped after he met with the Chinese ambassador to Bangladesh, Li Jiming.[152]

Escalation of the civil war[edit]

Increased resistance efforts[edit]

In mid-October 2022, NUG issued a statement calling for the victory of the Spring Revolution by the end of 2023. This call to action was followed by increased fighting by the resistance forces in urban areas and in Southeastern Myanmar.[153] This development took place in the wake of the junta torching at least 20 villages in the Sagaing and Magway Regions as part of a "four cuts" strategy of attacking civilians to weaken anti-regime movements. According to Sagaing-based resistance spokespeople, many victims of arson then joined the resistance.[154] The urgency of the resistance was likely prompted by the looming elections planned by the State Administration Council.[153] The fragmentated nature of the grassroots elements of the PDF became more organized in 2022 through the command of the NUG and from cooperation with various EAOs- especially the Kachin Independence Army (KIA).[7]

The Karenni Nationalities Defense Force (KNDF) claimed in January 2023 that 1,692 regime troops and 211 resistance fighters were killed since the 2021 coup, 293 civilians had been killed by the regime, and 126 displaced civilians died while fleeing their homes in Kayah and Shan states in 2022.[155]

Highland attacks[edit]

A street in Kawkareik

The Karen National Liberation Army stepped up fighting, besieging the major town of Kawkareik on the Thai border in the 21 October 2022 Battle of Kawkareik.[153] The battle began with surprise attacks on the Asia Highway and at government offices within the town. Resistance forces looked poised to take the town, but ultimately withdrew two days later after facing junta air strikes and strategically drawing junta troops away from nearby positions.[156][157] Four days later, undeterred KNLA-led forces seized a junta Light Infantry Battalion base in Kyain Seikgyi Township.[158]

In Shan State, clashes between PDF forces near Inle Lake and the Pa-O National Organisation (PNO) broke out after the PNO coerced villages for speedboats and militia recruits.[159]

View of the Kalay-Falam Road

In late 2022, Chin State resistance forces used drones in a week-long siege of an outpost in Falam Township, killing 74% of the junta forces stationed, but failing to take the outpost against aerial bombardments.[160] In February 2023, CNA captured Thantlang police station and took control of the town.[161] In Kachin State, the Shanni Nationalities Army (SNA) became more actively allied with the junta as conflict between SNA and the KIA grew. In August, the SNA and the Myanmar Army set fire to hundreds of homes in Kachin state forcing KIA withdrawal from the area.[162]

Chin forces also targeted convoys on roads within the state. In March 2023, combined Chin resistance consisting of CNA, CNDF, and CDFs conducted multiple ambushes on a regime convoy between Kalay, Falam and Hakha capturing and destroyed multiple armoured vehicles.[163] The NUG awarded the combined Chin forces 400 million kyat for seizing two armoured vehicles.[164] The following day, the groups attacked another junta convoy carrying 80 troops on the road between Matupi and Paletwa, killing over 30 junta soldiers.[165] In April, CNDF attacked a junta base on the Kalay-Falam road near Varr, Falam Township, killing eleven regime soldiers and capturing fourteen.[166]

Lowland attacks[edit]

In November 2022, resistance in Bago Region increased. In Monyo Township, western Bago Region, the PDF attacked a police building using cluster bombs.[167] In eastern Bago, 15 junta soldiers were killed in a Bago PDF raid on a police station in Yedashe Township.[168] Thousands of civilians also fled Shwegyin Township as joint KNLA and NUG-led resistance forces seized three military outposts.[169]

A rural area near Mawlaik, Sagaing Region

In early December, a video of PDF forces beating and shooting a woman dead emerged on social media. The NUG Ministry of Defence said that the incident happened in June in Tamu, Sagaing and that they were investigating the incident after detaining the perpetrators involved.[170]

In early January 2023, PDF groups in Kani Township, Sagaing Region attacked junta supply ships, killing at least 25 soldiers. The junta increasingly used waterways for supplies, avoiding roadways in resistance-held areas.[171] In April 2023, a combined PDF force from nearby townships seized the Tower Taing hill base Kani Township, killing 30 junta soldiers and seizing weapons.[172][173]

In early 2023, the Mandalay PDF announced their intentions to ramp up military operations.[174] Alongside TNLA, they engaged in a series of intense clashes with the junta forces in Nawnghkio Township near the Shan-Mandalay border, killing at least 75 junta soldiers and wounding 60 others.[175] A combined force of at least 900 junta and pro-junta militia troops attacked resistance positions with the help of artillery attacks and airstrikes during the clashes but were forced to retreat.[176]

Urban attacks[edit]

In 2023, the number of attacks in urban areas increased. In March 2023, the urban guerilla group Urban Owls assassinated Minn Tayzar Nyunt Tin, a legal and money-laundering aide to the junta with links to former Air Force commander General Myat Hein, in Thanlyin, Yangon. Minn Tayzar Nyunt Tin helped draft the repressive Cyber Security Law, which was seen as violating digital rights, privacy and freedom of expression.[177]

Junta retaliation and atrocities[edit]

In October 2022, battles and skirmishes increased, as the junta committed several civilian atrocities. On 21 October, junta forces decapitated Saw Tun Moe, a high school teacher from Thit Nyi Naung, and impaled his head on a NUG-administered school's spiked gate after burning and looting Taung Myint village in Magway Region.[178]

Mogaung Township, east of Hpakant

Two days later, on 23 October, over 80 people were killed by an airstrike in Hpakant Township, Northern Myanmar, during an anniversary celebration for the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO). At least 80 civilians were killed, making it the single deadliest attack on civilians since the start of the renewed civil war.[179] The junta denied civilian casualties while the United Nations condemned the attack.[180]

In November 2022, the junta continued burning villages in Sagaing Region, including the home village of Cardinal Charles Maung Bo, the head of the Catholic Church in Myanmar.[181] Junta soldiers also hid in civilian trucks impersonating workers to ambush local defence forces in Shwebo Township.[182]

Scorched earth[edit]

In November 2022, the dry season allowed the greater use of the Myanmar Air Force to weaken resistance forces' ability to maintain strategic positions and outposts. Aerial bombardment, helicopter raids and artillery strikes typically followed skirmishes once junta ground forces sustained substantial losses and retreated. Once the entrapped forces were relieved by aerial support, they would engage in scorched earth tactics. World War Two veterans described the destruction as worse than that of the Burma campaign due to the deliberate targeting of civilian villages.[183] The heavy use of air forces came alongside a decrease in junta's ability to fight on the ground. During the week of 21 November, repeated junta air attacks along the Sagaing-Kachin border killed 80 and disrupted supply chains between the two resistance regions.[184] The junta's scorched earth campaign stretched across northern Myanmar, burning bases and villages they could no longer defend.[185] Thousands of residents fled during the campaign as hundreds of homes were destroyed.[186] In early 2023, one scorched earth push by the junta aimed to resecure the Letpadaung Copper Mine in Salingyi Township for Chinese foreign workers planning to leave for their holidays.[187]

On 23 February 2023, army troops launched a new military offensive in Sagaing, raiding and pillaging villages at the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Mu Rivers. During the offensive, troops from the 99th Light Infantry Division executed at least 17 villagers during the Tar Taing massacre.[188] Over that week, army troops in Sagaing killed a total of 99 villagers, beheaded 20 resistance fighters, and raped at least 3 women.[189]

Pinlaung, southern Shan State

In March 2022, army troops tortured and executed at least 30 villagers during the Pinlaung massacre in Shan State, including 3 Buddhist monks.[190] In mid-April, Myanmar Air Force bombed a celebration gathering during the Pazigyi massacre in Sagaing Region, killing at least 165 civilians, including several children, days before Thingyan, the Burmese new year.[191] The junta's spokesperson General Zaw Min Tun stated that they chose to attack the village as the village was allegedly opening a PDF office. The United Nations condemned the attack, citing a disregard of the military's duty to protect civilians.[192]

Paramilitaries and martial law[edit]

On 31 January 2023, the Ministry of Home Affairs issued a directive enabling organisations and citizens deemed "loyal to the state," including civilians, civil servants, and army personnel, to obtain firearms licenses.[193] The regulatory shift has enabled the military junta to arm pro-junta Pyusawhti militias and to suppress pro-democracy forces in light of waning military recruitment and their challenges with concurrently operating in multiple war theatres throughout the country.[194][195] On 12 February 2023, a leaked document purportedly from the Ministry of Home Affairs detailed the junta issuing firearms licenses to pro-regime civilians for the operation of counter-insurgency paramilitaries based on the new firearm licensing directive.[196]

On 2 February 2023, Min Aung Hlaing imposed martial law in 37 townships with resistance activity, affecting millions of residents.[197]

Temporary stalemate[edit]

Arakan ceasefire and subsequent new fronts, November 2022[edit]

Fields in Maungdaw Township, northern Rakhine State

On 26 November 2022, the Arakan Army and the junta agreed to a temporary ceasefire starting on 27 November. The ceasefire was brokered by Yōhei Sasakawa of the Nippon Foundation. Arakan Army spokespeople maintained that they agreed to the ceasefire for humanitarian reasons, as opposed to international pressure. The Arakan Army did not withdraw from fortifications held at the time of the ceasefire.[198] Junta spokespeople said that this was the first step towards a permanent ceasefire with the Arakan Army.[199] As of mid-December, tensions remained high with forces from both sides remaining in deployment within northern Rakhine State.[200]

On 30 November, the military launched a major assault on the Kokang Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army using heavy weapons on a base near Chinshwehaw by the Chinese border. This assault continued into 2 December, reportedly sending 500 junta soldiers.[201]

The military continued its campaign in northern Shan State against the Ta'ang National Liberation Army (TNLA). On 7 December 2022, the junta launched a ground offensive on the TNLA in the Battle of Namhsan using aerial bombs.[202] After six days of fighting, the TNLA captured four villages from junta control, killing 70 soldiers and capturing 28. On 17 December, the junta retreated, claiming that they reached an agreement with TNLA, and that they intended to target the PDF forces and attacked the TNLA in mistake. The TNLA rejected the statement.[203] Continued clashes in late December forced over a thousand civilians to flee to Mogok.[204]

2023 guerrilla attacks[edit]

According to analysts in early 2023, the civil war was in a state of stalemate. Despite several successful engagements, there was still a significant disparity in power between the joint resistance forces and the junta. The PDF and EAOs faced resource constraints as they primarily relied on donations for funding and underground channels to acquire arms.[7] The resistance also increasingly used coordinated drone attacks, such as on 27 August 2023, when 11 resistance groups jointly conducted drone strikes in Sagaing Township, killing 17 soldiers.[205] Moreover, earlier on 31 January and 1 February 2023, a joint force led by Karen National Defence Organisation conducted a drone that killed two military commanders; Captain Zaw Win Naing of 32nd Infantry Division and Captain Wai Lin Soe of 585th Light Infantry Division in Htee Ka Pa Lel village, south of Myawaddy town.[206]

In early June 2023, NUG announced the formation of the PDF's first battalion in Yangon Region – Battalion 5101.[207] On 19 June 2023, the Urban Owls guerilla group assassinated Ye Khaing, the operations director and head of security of Yangon International Airport, and a former air force major, outside his house at Mingaladon Township, Yangon. Ye Khaing was allegedly providing information to the junta and detaining anti-junta activists at Myanmar's primary international airport.[208] Urban Owls also claimed that Ye Khaing was a confidante of Steven Law, the owner of Asia World Company, which operates the airport, and is a major supporter of the regime together with the second-in-command, Senior General Soe Win.[209]

In late June 2023, a combined resistance force of PDF and KNLA took control of the National Highway 8 in Mon State, installing checkpoints and arresting junta personnel.[210] Also in June, the Ye Township-based resistance group Ye Belu launched successive guerrilla attacks on the junta in June 2023. On 22 June, they attacked a junta security checkpoint at Chaung Taung bridge, killing four soldiers and one official working for the junta's Ministry of Immigration and Population in Lamaing.[211] On 26 June, the group assassinated a Pyusawhti militia leader in Duya, Ye Township.[212] Two days later, they ambushed an army convoy from the junta's No. 19 Military Operations Command, killing five soldiers and injuring others.[213] The attacks caused a breakdown in junta administration in Ye Township. All administration offices in three towns - namely, Lamaing, Khawzar and Ye - closed down.[214]

On 10 August 2023, junta forces clashed with a coalition of several rebel groups at Thandaung, near Nay Pyi Taw. The rebel forces aimed to capture the 606th Light Infantry Division Headquarters.[215] On 15 September 2023, members of the Northern Thandaung Defence Force, along with the Lethal Prop drone unit, attacked the Aye Lar military base near the Nay Pyi Taw International Airport with 2 makeshift bombs. It was the first documented drone attack by resistance forces against an airbase.[216]

2023 monsoon offensives[edit]

In August 2023, the NUG claimed that 3,012 junta troops were killed between January and July 2023.[217] In Kayah state alone, 667 military junta troops and 99 resistance members were killed.[218] In a September interview, Duwa Lashi La claimed that resistance forces had taken effective control of about 60% of Myanmar's territory.[219]

In early June 2023, a coalition force of KNLA and other resistance forces ambushed junta forces at Don Tha Mi bridge checkpoints on the border of Karen and Mon States, inflicting heavy casualties.[220] The next day, resistance groups raided the police station and junta offices in Kyain Seikgyi Township, Karen State, killing 10 junta soldiers and injuring 15. The junta retaliated with artillery fire and deployed attack helicopters, killing two local civilians and a monk.[220]

In Kayah State on 13 June 2023, the Karenni National People's Liberation Front (KNPLF), who had previously been in a ceasefire with the junta and became a Border Guard Force in 2009, openly defected to anti-junta forces. The KNPLF began attacking Burmese military positions, joining forces with KA, KNDF, KNLA, and PDF,[221] and seizing junta outposts in the Battle of Mese. The combined forces took over Mese Township in Eastern Kayah State.[222] 430 soldiers of the Light Infantry Battalion, including their lieutenant colonel commander, surrendered to the resistance.[223] Later in July, KNLA forces and allies captured the Lat Khat Taung hill junta base. During an attempt to recapture the hill, 20 junta soldiers were killed and 34 wounded.[224]

From July to September 2023, the Ta'ang National Liberation Army and the Mandalay People's Defence Force jointly conducted Operation Kanaung against junta forces in the Mandalay Region. Over that period, 76 junta soldiers were killed, 19 were wounded, and a large amount of weapons and ammunition were seized.[225][226]

Major late 2023 offensives[edit]

In late January 2024, BBC News said that the "bloody two-year stalemate" of the civil war appears to "have been broken" with the success of the offense of the three ethnic armies of the Three Brotherhood Alliance (TNLA, MNDAA and AA). The Operation 1027 offense started in October 2023 culminated in the fall of Laukkai, the capital of Kokang and the surrender of thousands Tatmadaw soldiers and their equipment".[9][25]

Ronan Lee, a professor at Loughborough University, stated that strategic reversals, nationwide territorial losses and economic decline mean momentum had strongly shifted away from Myanmar's junta, and the junta "may now be in a death spiral".[227]

Operation 1027[edit]

Map of anti-junta gains made during Operation 1027 and Taungthaman as of 9 January 2024

On 27 October 2023, the Three Brotherhood Alliance initiated Operation 1027, targeting the junta's checkpoints and bases near Lashio and the Phaung Seik border trade post near Chinshwehaw.[228] Chinshwehaw fell into ethnic armies' hands. Lashio Airport and two important China-Myanmar border crossings near Laukkai were closed.[229][230] Over the next three days, the coalition forces captured 57 bases to which the junta responded with aerial bombardments.[231] Simultaneously, the AA engaged junta forces in Htigyaing Township, Sagaing Region.[232]

Kunlong suspension bridge

On 30 October, Nawnghkio fell under limited TNLA and Mandalay PDF control[233] and 41 junta combatants in Kunlong surrendered to the MNDAA.[234] The next day, combined AA and KIA forces captured Gangdau Yang base on the Myitkyina-Bhamo road.[235] A junta convoy came the next day to reinforce Nawnghkio but TNLA and PDF forces blew up an armored car, took weapons and POWs. The convoy retreated and established a camp in southwest Nawnghkio Township, which was assaulted by the rebel forces the following morning.[236] The junta acknowledged having lost control of three towns in Northern Shan State, including Pang Hseng.[237] TNLA, MNDAA, and AA declared control over four towns, including Hsenwi.[238]

On 6 November, TNLA forces seized bridges and road gates near Namhkam, Shan State, and took the town after a three-day assault.[239] Kawlin also fell to the coalition, marking the first district-level capital seized during the operation.[35] Over the next three days, the coalition took Khampat, Kunlong and Monekoe across northern Myanmar, re-establishing local government functions after securing towns.[240][241][242] They also took Panlong base in Kunlong Township, killing Brigadier General Aung Kyaw Lwin in the battle,[243] and the strategic Goktwin bridge near the Goteik viaduct on the main Mandalay-China highway.[244]

On 11 December, China helped to hold peace talks between the Tatmadaw and various rebel groups, including the Brotherhood Alliance.[245] The Brotherhood Alliance announced later on 13 December that these peace talks "lasted only 10 minutes" and vowed to continue fighting.[246]

On 17 November, the TNLA captured the Sakhan Thit Kone base in Namhkam Township, but lost it to a junta offensive the following day. The TNLA accused the junta of using chemical weapon bombs during the counter-siege.[247] Through December, the TNLA seized Namhsan and Mantong taking over the Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone from junta control.[248][249]

In the aftermath of Operation 1027, the United Wa State Party declared Wa State a neutral zone in November 2023. The UWSP threatened the use of force against hypothetical anti-junta or Tatmadaw incursions into the Wa Self-Administered Division while promising to aid refugees and other displaced persons.[250]

Operation Taungthaman[edit]

An operation in Madaya Township, Mandalay Region also started in late October in support to the simultaneous Operation 1027. On 13 November, fighting erupted in Kinn Village, eastern Madaya Township between the TNLA and the junta, who responded with air and artillery strikes and later burning the village down.[251] By 28 November, PDF and TNLA forces captured a junta base in the township.[252] The TNLA additionally supported the operations with attacks in Nawnghkio and Kyaukme Townships in southern Shan State to cut off junta reinforcements.[253]

Operation 1107 and 1111[edit]

Loikaw University

Offensives timed to coincide with Operation 1027 also took place in the eastern states of Shan and Kayah. In northern Shan State, the KNLA and PDF clashed with the Tatmadaw around the town of Kawkareik.[254] In Mese Township (part of Kayah State), the KNPLF, KA and KNDF launched a joint military operation that captured several border posts starting on November 7.[255][256] Four days later, they launched the major Operation 1111 against Loikaw, the capital of Kayah State.[257] The military operations in Kayah displaced tens of thousands of civilians, especially from Loikaw.[258] After over a month of heavy fighting, rebel forces had won control of 85% of the capital.[259] Nonetheless, fighting has continued into January.[260]

Resumption of war in Rakhine[edit]

On the morning of 13 November 2023, the Arakan Army (AA) attacked two Border Guard Police stations in Rathedaung Township, breaking the Rakhine State Ceasefire Agreement between the junta and the Arakan Army. Dong Paik camp was captured by 6:30 am.[34] On 14 November, the junta had already abandoned around 40 outposts in Rakhine state after attacks by the Arakan Army, but few came under their immediate control.[261] Dozens of Myanmar security officers surrendered to the Arakan Army the following day.[262]

The following night, the Arakan Army launched an attack on Pauktaw, seizing the township police station. By the next morning, the Arakan Army had taken control of the town. The junta sent 2 helicopter gunships alongside naval support to fire back, including at civilian housing, with heavy machine gun fire. Pauktaw's proximity to the Rakhine state capital, Sittwe, posed a threat to the junta.[263] Junta forces detained about 100 residents who were unable to flee, and positioned themselves to surround the town, using two navy ships to blockade the harbour.[264]

Chin offensive[edit]

Kennedy Peak, Chin State

On the morning of 13 November 2023, after two days of fighting, the Chin National Army (CNA), along with local Chinland Defense Force (CDF) units, captured the town of Rikhawdar on the India-Myanmar border.[265] This marked the first town captured by resistance forces in Chin State since the start of armed resistance following the coup. At least 40 junta soldiers and police officers fled to the neighboring Indian state of Mizoram, where they surrendered to local police before being turned over to the Assam Rifles. They were subsequently repatriated back to Myanmar.[266]

On 14 November, the Arakan Army launched an offensive in Paletwa Township on the Chin-Rakhine border. The Arakan Army accused the Tatmadaw of using chemical weapons during the ensuing battles.[267] On 6 December, the Arakan Army announced that they had captured a major military base in the township.[268]

On 21 November, local Zoland PDF units seized a military base on Kennedy Peak, the second highest mountain in Chin State.[269] Over the next week, CNA and its allies captured Lailenpi[270] and Rezua in Matupi Township.[271]

On 6 December 2023, the Chin National Front ratified the Chinland Constitution, proclaiming the state of Chinland.[272]

Effect on Tatmadaw[edit]

Two ATR-42 of the Myanmar Air Force at Mawlamyine Airport

The Irrawaddy reported on 22 November 2023 that the Tatmadaw was preparing 14,000 soldiers for the defence of Naypyitaw, including by moving troops from other regions to the capital and mobilizing civil servants into the military. These preparations started soon after Operation 1027 was launched against the Tatmadaw. In addition, the Tatmadaw was preparing 10,000 troops for the defence of Mandalay, Bago and Yangon. There were also fortification works beginning, with Naypyitaw police stations "also preparing concrete blocks, sandbags and other materials needed to transform into defensive bases in just a few days".[273]

In early December, the Tatmadaw-led government appealed for deserters to return, promising the deserters exoneration. The National Unity Government claims some 20,000 soldiers had deserted and joined its ranks.[274] By 7 December, the junta began freeing soldiers who had been jailed for desertion to ease apparent manpower shortages as a result of battlefield pressures from recent operations.[275]

Paramilitaries[edit]

BBC News reports that the pro-junta paramilitary Pyusawhti has been accused of more than one atrocity against civilians and using force to recruit local men. But they have also been less than effective in building up grassroots enforcement on behalf of the junta, and have "taken root only in the small number of communities where the military's own party is traditionally strong."[25]

One man contacted by the BBC in the area where Wathawa has been mobilising since early 2022 said he had only been able to recruit a maximum of 10–15 men in each village, and then only by threatening to burn down their homes.

He said many of the recruits had run away, and were being helped by other villagers to hide from Wathawa and his gun-toting monks.[25]

Fall of Laukkai and aftermath[edit]

Battle of Laukkai[edit]

China-Myanmar border gate near Laukkai

In late November and December, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) closed in on Laukkai, the capital of the Kokang Self-Administered Zone as a continuation of Operation 1027. They seized several strategic positions during the Battle of Laukkai.[276] MNDAA forces attacked junta bases around the city, including the Four Buddhist Statues Hill outpost immediately south of Laukkai.[277] On 26 December, over 90 of the junta's 55th Light Infantry Division surrendered to the MNDAA.[278] The artillery shelling of Laukkai stopped and the city mostly fell under MNDAA control on 28 December.[279] On 5 January 2024, the MNDAA seized control of the Northeast Command's headquarters in Laukkai and gained full control of the city.[9]

A few days later, the Three Brotherhood Alliance claimed to capture the towns of Kutkai and Theinni on 8 January after seizing junta military posts in the towns, including the headquarters of the 16th Military Operations Command in Theinni.[280] On 23 January, three of the brigadier generals who surrendered at Laukkai were sentenced to death and the other three were sentenced to life imprisonment, under military law.[281]

Tenuous ceasefire[edit]

In early December, the Tatmadaw allegedly reached out to China for it to assert pressure on the Three Brotherhood Alliance to stop Operation 1027.[282] On January 12, China announced that it had negotiated a ceasefire between the junta and the Three Brotherhood Alliance. The two sides agreed to disengage personnel and pledged not to compromise the safety of Chinese border residents.[283] According to the Brotherhood Alliance, they had agreed not to seize more towns in northern Shan and that the junta had agreed not to shell or strike that area.[284] The following day, the TNLA reported that the junta had broken their ceasefire agreement with airstrikes in various townships in Northern Shan, including Lashio Township and Kyaukme Township.[285]

On 20 January 2024, the Tatamadaw and the Pa-O National Army (PNA) attempted to confiscate the Pa-O National Liberation Army (PNLA)'s weapons.[286] A few days later, firefight broke out in Hopong Township. PNLA retaliated with KNDF and local PDF forces and attacked the town of Hsi Hseng, Shan State eventually capturing it on 26 January 2024.[287] On the same day, the PNLA's political wing formally revoked their participation in the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement, pledged to help the NUG replace the Junta with a federal system and implored the PNA's political wing to switch sides under the promise that they will not be attacked.[3]

On 10 February 2024, the Tatmadaw announced that all men aged 18 to 35 and women aged 18 to 27 will be required to complete up to 2 years of mandatory military service, amid its territorial losses. Those who fail to enlist face imprisonment for up to 5 years during a national emergency.[288]

Continued offensives in Rakhine and Chin[edit]

Paletwa seen from the Kaladan River, 2015

On 8 January 2024, the Arakan Army captured the Taung Shey Taung base and its 200 junta soldiers in Kyauktaw Township, Rakhine State. They then escalated their offence into Paletwa Township, Chin State with the aim of capturing Paletwa, a strategic town for the Indo-Myanmar Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project[289] On 15 January, the Arakan Army seized Paletwa and the entire township, declaring it a "military council-free area."[290] A week later, the Arakan Army captured the town of Pauktaw in Rakhine State concluding a three-month battle.[291]

On 17 January 2024, the Taingen camp on the Falam road to the Indian border was captured, with Chin resistance forces seizing arms and ammunition.[292] On 20 January 2024, after more than 600 junta soldiers and refugees cross the Indo-Myanmar border, the Government of India announced a plan to fence the 1,643 km border.[293]

On 3 February 2024, as the clashes between Arakan Army and Tatmadaw increased in Rakhine, mortar shells and several bullets reportedly landed in Bangladesh territory, which injured some local residents. Repeated bursts of gunfire and explosions were be heard across the Bangladesh–Myanmar border from Ukhia, Cox's Bazar.[294] At least 229 Myanmar Border Guard Police (BGP) personnel entered Bangladesh through the Tumbru border point seeking refuge from AA, where the Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB) disarmed them and gave them shelter in Bandarban district.[295] On 5 February 2024, a Bangladeshi woman and a Rohingya man died from a mortar shell that fell on the Ghumdum border in Bandarban, reportedly fired by Myanmar.[22]

The Arakan Army reportedly captured the remaining Tatmadaw bases in Minbya on 6 February, taking full control of the township. The same day, the AA seized the Taung Pyo junta outpost along the border with Bangladesh in Maungdaw Township.[296] The Arakan Army additionally captured Kyauktaw on 7 February, while heavy fighting continued in Mrauk U and Ramree.[297] The Tatmadaw abandoned Myebon to go to Kyaukphyu on 9 February, leaving ammunition behind in their rush and abandoning the southern township of Mrauk-U District.[298] The following day, AA took the town of Mrauk U completing their control over the township. During the battle, three Myanmar Navy landing craft were reportedly sunk.[8][299] In response to the seizure of the three towns, the junta blew up bridges in Kyauktaw Township and the state capital, Sittwe.[300] Five days later, the Arakan Army captured Myebon.[301]

Other fronts[edit]

Tensions rose between the junta and the Karen State Border Guard Force (BGF) as the Karen BGF refused orders from the junta to engage in battle. On 23 January, deputy commander-in-chief Soe Win visited Hpa-An to meet with Karen BGF leader Colonel Saw Chit Thu after the latter refused to come to the capital Naypyidaw and meet the junta.[302] On 14 February, combined forces of the Karenni Army and Karenni Nationalities Defense Force captured the town of Shadaw after almost a month-long battle. This capture led Shadaw Township to be the second Kayah township completely captured by Karenni forces, after Mese.[303]

On 29 January 2024, KNLA and PDF forces shot down a Tatmadaw Eurocopter AS365 as it was landing, killing Brigadier General Aye Min Naung of the 44th Light Infantry Division and four others.[304]

Tatmadaw forces recaptured Kawlin on 10 February 2024 after almost 10 days of fighting. [305]

On 14 February 2024, a splinter group of the Mon National Liberation Army (who signed a ceasefire with the Tatmadaw), announced that they will no longer negotiate with the junta and will join hands with other revolutionary forces in Mon State.[306]

Humanitarian impact and war crimes[edit]

The human rights situation in Myanmar has deteriorated substantially since the beginning of the civil conflict. The Burmese military has escalated its use of war crimes, including murder, sexual violence, torture, and the targeting of civilians.[307][308] The junta has also seized the properties of political opponents as part of an intimidation strategy, impacting hundreds of families.[309]

Since the onset of the civil conflict, both the Burmese military and resistance forces alike have used educational facilities as bases and detention sites.[310] In 2021, over 190 violent attacks on schools were reported in 13 of Myanmar's states and regions.[310] As of June 2022, 7.8 million children remained out of school.[311]

Myanmar's public health system has effectively collapsed,[312] and the civil war has worsened the country's food security crisis, with one in four people experiencing food insecurity.[313] Poverty and food insecurity have disproportionately affected Myanmar's Dry Zone and the Irrawaddy delta regions, which account for over 80% of the country's agricultural area and are home to a third of the country's population.[314]

As of September 2022, 1.3 million people had been internally displaced, and over 13,000 children have been killed.[307][29] By March 2023, the UN estimated that since the coup, 17.6 million people in Myanmar required humanitarian assistance, while 1.6 million were internally displaced, and 55,000 civilian buildings had been destroyed.[315]

In March 2023, Volker Türk, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, reported that armed conflict had continued to grow. He stated that they were investigating hundreds of incidents of houses being burnt and civilians, including children, being killed. Overall, 15.2 million people faced food insecurity.[316]

Economic and procurement aspects[edit]

Economic impact[edit]

Economic conditions in Myanmar have substantially worsened due to the ongoing war and to economic mismanagement by the SAC.[317][318] In 2021, Myanmar's GDP declined by 5.9%.[319] In an interview, Christian Lechervy, the French ambassador to Myanmar, highlighted the impact of the coup on the country's economy: "In 2021, Myanmar's economic growth has contracted by more than 18%, poverty has doubled, the number of people in need of humanitarian aid has multiplied by seven and more than 450,000 people have been forced to flee their homes".[320] Between March and June 2022, almost 10,000 people per month left the country through official channels, worsening the country's brain drain and mirroring the civilian exodus that followed the 1962 and 1988 military coups.[29][321] The local job market has collapsed.[321] At the end of July 2023, the SAC announced that it would issue a limited number of new 20,000 kyat banknotes. The announcement led to an increase in the price of gold, as well as in foreign currency exchange rates.[322]

As of September 2022, the value of the Burmese kyat has depreciated by over 60%,[323] while basic commodity prices have increased by up to 57%.[318] The World Bank estimates Myanmar's economy will contract by another 18% in 2022.[324][needs update] Since April 2022, the country has experienced foreign currency shortages, which have acutely impacted importers, resulting in shortages of basic products like medicines and fertilisers.[325] The military regime has imposed foreign currency controls, which has worsened the shortage of US dollars among international firms operating in the country.[326] Many foreign and multinational companies, including Telenor, Ooredoo, Chevron, British American Tobacco, and Woodside Petroleum have exited the Burmese market as the conflict has intensified.[327]

In September 2022, the G7-led Financial Action Task Force announced plans to blacklist Myanmar for failing to stem money laundering and terrorist financing.[328] At that time, only Iran and North Korea were on the Financial Action Task Force blacklist.[328] In October 2022, Myanmar was blacklisted by the task force, which increased volatility in the value of the Burmese kyat.[329]

In early 2024, it was reported that the civil war had significantly increased prices of every day goods, such as rice (160-220%), fuel (520%), and palm oil (75%) from pre-war levels. Also, the Kyat to US dollar exchange rate had increased by 160%.[330]

Interim Central Bank[edit]

The National Unity Government of Myanmar established an Interim Central Bank (ICB) led by their Planning, Finance and Investment minister, Tin Tun Naing. The goal of establishing this bank is to contest foreign reserves and assets held by the Central Bank in Naypitaw.[331] It was also reported that the ICB seized 44 billion Kyats from other banks.[332] Radio Free Asia explained in regards to Central Banks raising funds for their government; "The NUG has acknowledged raising over $150 million since the coup" and that "it dwarfs in comparison to the revenue of the junta, which gave itself a raise of 51 percent in FY2023 to $2.7 billion – it's not insignificant either."[333]

Under the direction of the ICB there is a newly established for-profit bank called Spring Development Bank, with an intent to establish its own cryptocurrency.[334][333]

Anti-junta forces weapons and equipment manufacturing[edit]

The limited possession of guns by ethnic insurgent movements along with the lack of international support and formal means of acquiring military material has presented the anti-junta forces with a challenging situation for the confrontation of the military regime. Faced with this difficulty since the early stages of armed insurgency, the resistance movement sought ways to manufacture the necessary weapons and equipment for the conflict. Initially, the rebels expanded the production of a traditionally made, single-shot rifle known as Tumi, especially in the Chin state. Nonetheless, this kind of rifle is severely limited for battleground action. For this reason, the fighters have developed alternative models which are more advanced, while still calling them Tumi.[335] Since then, the resistance movement has developed many kinds of carbines, landmines and bomb drones, to be manufactured within the technological and material means of liberated territories and underground cells.[336][337]

Commercially available drones rigged to carry bombs were used to attack military positions. PDF groups reportedly produced naval bombs to target government logistics in rivers. Meanwhile, defected soldiers developed 60 mm long-range mortars. The use of 3D printing was also reported, both to salvage weapons taken from the junta and for the improvised production of semiautomatic carbines.[336][338] The success of Operation 1027 enabled the Brotherhood Alliance to seize enormous caches of arms and ammunition from the Tatmadaw, making it better equipped than before it launched Operation 1027.[339]

Reactions[edit]

International organisations[edit]

NUG's UN Ambassador Kyaw Moe Tun talks in an interview in 2022

In June 2021, the United Nations General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution asking member states to impose an arms embargo on Myanmar.[340] 200 international organisations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have continued to press the UN and its member states to adopt a global arms embargo.[341][342]

ASEAN and East Timor[edit]

Myanmar absent at the US-ASEAN Summit 2022 in Washington, D.C

ASEAN has blocked Myanmar from participating in regional summits since the 2021 coup.[343] For instance, during the 2022 ASEAN summit, Myanmar's chair remained empty.[344] ASEAN member-states have not taken a consistent, coordinated approach with respect to the ongoing civil war, due to internal divisions. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore are strongly opposed to the military junta.[345][346]

Thailand was a key ally of the junta; former Prime Minister of Thailand Prayut Chan-o-cha used back-channel contacts in mid-2021 to shape Thailand's diplomatic options, especially as these related to ASEAN.[347][348] On 30 June 2022, when the Myanmar Air Force allegedly violated Thai airspace, Thailand scrambled a defence attache. Later, Prayuth said that the incident was "not a big deal".[349] After the 2023 Thai general election, the new Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin has shown support for the military's Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement urging all parties in Myanmar to stay on the path for peace and stability.[350]

Singapore initially emphasised the importance of separating business from politics, but subsequently became wary of doing business with Myanmar.[351] Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong described the use of lethal force in the suppression of anti-junta protestors as "just not acceptable" and "disastrous".[352] In 2022, Lee continued supporting the exclusion of the military regime from ASEAN meetings until the regime cooperates on ASEAN's peace plans.[353] Currently, Singapore does not recognise the military junta.[354] During the war, Singapore has remained a major equipment supplier for the junta's weapons factories. Several Singapore-based firms have also served as intermediary companies for the junta, collectively shipping 254 million US dollars worth of arms to the junta between 2021 and 2023.[355][356]

As of December 2023, East Timor remains the only government to have openly expressed sympathies to the anti-regime forces in Myanmar.[357] In August 2023, the State Administration Council expelled the East Timorese ambassador in retaliation for the East Timorese government meeting with the NUG.[358]

Bangladesh[edit]

Bangladesh recognizes the military junta, but does not support its actions, in part because the Rohingya genocide has led to around 1 million Rohingya refugees fleeing to Bangladesh. In the first week of September 2020, Bangladeshi forces reported that the Tatmadaw started amassing troops and doing unusual buildups in three different locations on the Bangladesh-Myanmar border. As a consequence, Bangladesh's foreign minister summoned Myanmar's ambassador, calling for him to desist from such activities and to work for mutually beneficial relations between the two countries.[359] As a result, Bangladesh revealed that is ready to face any situation, deploying the 34 Border Guard Bangladesh battalion on the border with Myanmar. This battalion asked their counterparts to arrange a flag meeting but they received no response.[360]

In August 2022, Bangladesh strongly protested territorial violations when two Myanmar Army mortar shells hit a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh and when a junta helicopter entered Bangladeshi airspace and fired a shell.[151] Aung Kyaw Moe, the ambassador of Myanmar to Bangladesh, was summoned by the Bangladesh ministry of foreign affairs four times in 2022 due to multiple violations of Bangladesh's airspace in the Naikhongchhari border area by the Myanmar Army.[361]

On 3 February 2024, intensifying clashes between the Arakan Army and Tatmadaw in Rakhine state lead to mortar shells and bullets landing in Bangladesh, injuring civilians and prompting local villagers to flee. Bangladeshi authorities closed schools and madrasas in border villages. As tensions increased, Bangladesh strengthened the Bangladesh Police and Bangladesh Coast Guard to be stationed to resist any intrusion through the borders.[294] 327 Myanmar Border Guard Police personnel sought refuge in Bangladesh, where they were disarmed and sheltered by the Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB).[362] Two days later, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina instructed the Bangladesh Armed Forces and BGB to have patience regarding the situation in Myanmar.[363] On 7 February BGB Director Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman Siddiqui recommended suspending the naval route to St. Martin's Island in Bangladesh due to the increasing border tensions,[364] accordingly, sea travel to St. Martin's Island is indefinitely closed down by the district administration of Cox's Bazar from 10 February.[365] On 8 February 2024, the Tatmadaw agreed to send a ship to take back the stranded BGP personnels in Bangladesh.[366]

China[edit]

In 2023, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi and Myanmar's Foreign Minister Than Swe jointly meet the press after the eighth LMC Foreign Ministers' Meeting

Since the coup d'état, China and Russia have supported the military junta and have been its main arms suppliers. China is Myanmar's largest trading partner.[367][368] China has also been accused of tacitly supporting the junta. China and Russia have blocked any substantive action against Myanmar's military at the United Nations Security Council, while the country's security forces have reportedly used Chinese and Russian-supplied weapons to perpetrate human rights violations.[369] In December 2022, China's special envoy to Myanmar, Deng Xijun, engaged with the military junta in Naypyidaw.[370] After his visit, the Burmese military pulled 30 battalions from the Northeastern Command, and redeployed them to launch major offensives against pro-democracy forces in other areas.[371] However, concerns later grew over allegations of China no longer 'restraining' the influence of the insurgents, which some viewed as a response to the Burmese military's inaction over Chinese citizens being forced to work in scam centres in northern Shan state.[372]

China is particularly sensitive to Western support for EAOs along the Burmese-Chinese border, and has moved to simultaneously support the military junta and powerful EAOs like the United Wa State Army, which has supported pro-democracy forces.[370] In response to the BURMA Act passed by the United States in 2022, the Government of China increased diplomatic efforts to engage EAOs and the military junta, to protect Chinese business and geopolitical interests.[373]

The fact that the Three Brotherhood Alliance's Operation 1027 in late 2023 was carried out near the China–Myanmar border may indicate a shift in China's stance.[374] The status quo in that area had previously been guaranteed by a China-mediated ceasefire. This change in stance was attributed by analysts to concerns about cyber-scam centers, the pursuit of favorable concessions from the junta on the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, and the opportunity to influence the PDF in light of evolving dynamics between NUG and EAO groups.[375] On 13 November 2023, China issued arrest warrants for junta-aligned Ming Xuecheng and his family members for their involvement in online scamming operations. According to The Diplomat, this move signaled China's "tacit support for the removal of the Kokang SAZ's leadership".[376] China issued more arrest warrants in December for 10 high-ranking Kokang officials and business leaders for being members of "family criminal gangs", including the founder of the Kokang region's Border Guard Forces, Bai Xuoqian.[377][378]

On 6 December 2023, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi urged to "achieve domestic reconciliation" and "continue the political transformation process" in Myanmar during a meeting with Myanmar's Foreign Minister Than Swe.[379] On 4 January 2024, which is Myanmar's Independence Day, China opted to remain silent and did not send a congratulatory message, unlike prior years when Chinese president Xi Jinping personally sent such congratulatory messages.[380]

India[edit]

India, which represents Myanmar's fourth-largest export market and fifth-largest import partner, has continued a business-as-usual approach to cross-border relations and continues to recognize the military junta.[381] State-owned and private Indian companies, including Yantra India, supplied arms and raw materials to the junta, enabling the military to conduct surveillance and boost its artillery and missile stocks. A 2023 UN report alleges that these arms were likely to be used in the commission of international crime and that companies have avoided sanctions through shell companies.[382] The India–Myanmar border is 1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi) in length and runs from the tripoint with China in the north to the tripoint with Bangladesh in the south.[383] Amid escalating clashes in Rakhine, India urged its citizens to avoid travel to Rakhine State in early February 2024.[384]

Russia[edit]

Min Aung Hlaing meets Head Rais Rustam Minnikhanov of Tatarstan in Russia, June 2021

Russia has embraced deeper ties with the Burmese military junta, as the civil war has progressed. Russia has provided materiel, military training for over 50 Myanmar Air Force pilots, and diplomatic backing to the regime.[385] Min Aung Hlaing has visited Russia several times, personally meeting with Russian president Vladimir Putin in September 2022. The military junta backed the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[343] Russia was among the few countries[d] to send a congratulatory message to the junta on Myanmar's Independence Day.[386]

European Union and NATO countries[edit]

The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the European Union have, in response to the ongoing violence, sanctioned individuals and organisations associated with the Burmese military.[387][388] However, the effectiveness of these sanctions has been undermined by poor coordination among the governments and the lack of sanctions against high-impact targets.[388] As of February 2023, only 13% of Burmese sanctions targets were sanctioned by the US, the UK and the EU.[388] Further, the UK and US governments have not sanctioned Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), which is the country's largest source of foreign currency.[389] Burmese sanctions targets have also evaded international sanctions by channeling funds through affiliated firms.[390] For instance, a subsidiary of Myanma Economic Holdings Limited, a sanctioned military-owned conglomerate, created a new affiliated firm to import palm oil.[390]

On 23 December 2022, U.S. President Joe Biden signed the Burma Unified through Rigorous Military Accountability Act (BURMA Act) into law, which provides the president with additional discretionary authority to make policy changes with respect to Myanmar.[391] The law enables the president to provide "non-lethal assistance" to NUG, EAOs, PDFs, and pro-democracy organisations, to provide humanitarian aid to the country, to impose new sanctions, including on MOGE, and enables the secretary of state to assist civilian and international entities with identifying and documenting war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide in Myanmar.[391]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ April–November 2022; October 2023–present
  2. ^
  3. ^ Burmese: ၂၀၂၁-လက်ရှိ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ ပြည်သူ့ခုခံတွန်းလှန်စစ်; MLCTS: 2021 – lakhri. mranmanuing.ngan pranysu.hku.hkamtwan:hlancac, Burmese pronunciation: [n̥ə.'tʰa̼ʊn.n̥ə.sʰɛ̼.θɪʔ 'lɐʔ.ʃi̼ mjàm.mà.nàɪŋ.ŋàɴ 'pjì.θu̼ 'kʰu̼.kʰàɰ̃ 'tʊ́ːɰ̃.ɫàɰ̃.sɪʔ]
  4. ^ Belarus, Cambodia, North Korea, Russia, and Syria sent congratulatory messages to the State Administration Council for Myanmar's Independence Day on 4 January, 2024.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sagaing and Magway PDFs launch guerrilla attacks on military columns". Myanmar Now. 12 October 2021. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  2. ^ "Yangon PDF Central Command announces attacks after Kyimyindine crackdown". BNI. 7 December 2021. Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b Ethnic Pa-O Group Exits Myanmar Peace Talks, Formally Joins War Against Dictatorship. Yuzana. January 27, 2024. The Irrawaddy. Archived January 27, 2024, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Murders in Yangon and Mandalay linked to Thwe Thout". Myanmar Now. 23 May 2022. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  5. ^ "Paul Lu: ZRO/ZRA Has Abducted And Killed Our CJDC Members". Burma News International. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  6. ^ a b Jones, Aidan (5 September 2022). "Myanmar junta 'losing control' as armed resistance digs in, rights experts say". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2023. Retrieved 4 February 2023.
  7. ^ a b c d "The civil war in Myanmar: No end in sight". Brookings. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  8. ^ a b Htoo Zan (9 February 2024). "AA: Historic Mrauk U Seized From Myanmar's Junta". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 11 February 2024. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  9. ^ a b c d "MNDAA captures military command centre outside Laukkai, taking full control of city". Myanmar Now. 5 January 2024. Archived from the original on 11 January 2024. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  10. ^ "Resistance Sets up the Chin People's Administrative Committee to Govern Chinland". BNI. 29 January 2024. Archived from the original on 29 January 2024. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  11. ^ ""We are Getting Stronger to Complete the Revolution": Karenni Resistance Leader". The Irrawaddy. 15 June 2022. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  12. ^ "KNPLF Says No Fake Peace". BNI. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  13. ^ "With Conscription Law, Myanmar's Generals Are Digging Their Own Graves". The irrawaddy. 14 February 2024. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  14. ^ "Myanmar's Military Is Smaller Than Commonly Thought — and Shrinking Fast". usip.org. Archived from the original on 16 May 2023. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  15. ^ "ACLED Dashboard". ACLED. 22 April 2022. Archived from the original on 1 November 2022. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  16. ^ "AAPP | Assistance Association for Political Prisoners". AAPP | Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. Archived from the original on 6 February 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  17. ^ "Myanmar Emergency Update (as of 2 October 2023)". Reliefweb.com. 2 October 2023. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  18. ^ "Myanmar: Intensification of Clashes Flash Update #10 (as of 15 December 2023)". 15 December 2023. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  19. ^ "Conflict seen escalating in Myanmar on the anniversary of PDF". Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  20. ^ Strangio, Sebastian (3 June 2022). "Myanmar's Total Displaced Population Tops 1 Million, Says UN". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 14 July 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  21. ^ "Daily Briefing in Relation to the Military Coup". 28 March 2022. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  22. ^ a b Aziz, Abdul (6 February 2024). "Tension at border: Fear grips residents in Bandarban". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 6 February 2024. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  23. ^ "Myanmar Violence Escalates With Rise of 'Self-defense' Groups, Report Says". Voice of America. Agence France-Presse. 27 June 2021. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  24. ^ "Myanmar anti-coup insurgents destroy police post, kill security forces -media". Euronews. Reuters. 23 May 2021. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  25. ^ a b c d Head, Jonathan (23 January 2024). "Myanmar's army is losing – and facing fire from a militant monk". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  26. ^ Selth, Andrew (16 December 2023). "It is too early to write off Myanmar's junta". East Asia Forum. Archived from the original on 25 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  27. ^ "The tatmadaw, junta down but not out". The Hindu. 17 December 2023. Archived from the original on 25 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  28. ^ "More than two years on, impact of Myanmar military coup 'devastating' | UN News". news.un.org. 16 March 2023. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  29. ^ a b c Mike (15 September 2022). "Mass Exodus: Successive Military Regimes in Myanmar Drive Out Millions of People". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 26 October 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  30. ^ "Myanmar's Junta Is Losing the Civil War". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  31. ^ "Myanmar Junta Troops Lost Will to Fight: Brotherhood Alliance". The Irrawaddy. 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  32. ^ Fishbein, Emily; Hkawng, Jaw Tu; Awng, Zau Myet (3 November 2023). "Northern offensive brings 'new energy' to Myanmar's anti-coup resistance". Al Jazeera. Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  33. ^ "Kayah Resistance Seizes Myanmar Junta Bases in State Capital". The Irrawaddy. 15 November 2023. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  34. ^ a b "ရသေ့တောင်မြို့နယ် နယ်ခြားစောင့်ရဲစခန်းနှစ်ခုကို ရက္ခိုင့်တပ်တော် ထိုးစစ်ဆင်တိုက်ခိုက်ပြီးနောက် ဒုံးပိုက်စခန်းကိုသိမ်းပိုက်ရရှိပြီဟုဆို" [Two Rathedaung Township Border Guard Military Posts attacked by Arakan Army with Dong Paik camp being captured]. Narinjara News (in Burmese). 13 November 2023. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  35. ^ a b "Myanmar Resistance Seizes First District Level Town in Sagaing as Offensive Expands". The Irrawaddy. 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  36. ^ Hensengerth, Oliver (2005). "The Burmese Communist Party and the State-to-State Relations between China and Burma" (PDF). Leeds East Asia Papers. 67. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008.
  37. ^ Callahan, Mary Patricia (2003). Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7267-1. Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  38. ^ Pavković, 2011: 476
  39. ^ Flint, Colin; Kirsch, Scott (2011). Reconstructing Conflict: Integrating War and Post-war Geographies. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4094-0470-5. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  40. ^ Mullen, Jethro; Mobasherat, Mitra (13 February 2015). "Myanmar says Kokang rebels killed 47 of its soldiers". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  41. ^ Pagnucco, Ray; Peters, Jennifer (15 October 2015). "Myanmar's National Ceasefire Agreement isn't all that national". Vice News. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  42. ^ "Myanmar Signs Historic Cease-Fire Deal With Eight Ethnic Armies". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  43. ^ Sandford, Steve (31 May 2018). "Conflict Resumes in Karen State After Myanmar Army Returns". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  44. ^ Nadi, Nang Mya (22 November 2016). "8 killed as ethnic rebels hit Muse- DVB Multimedia Group". DVB Multimedia Group. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  45. ^ "Myanmar military announces new State Administrative Council". The Myanmar Times. 2 February 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  46. ^ "Min Aung Hlaing: the heir to Myanmar's military junta". France24. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  47. ^ "Myanmar shadow government calls for uprising against military". Al Jazeera. 7 September 2021. Archived from the original on 8 September 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  48. ^ Bynum, Elliott. "10 Conflicts to Worry About in 2022: Myanmar". ACLED. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  49. ^ "UCDP Candidates data set January to December 2021: Version 21.01.21.12". 31 January 2022. Archived from the original on 7 February 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  50. ^ a b c Tharoor, Ishaan (21 July 2022). "Myanmar's junta can't win the civil war it started". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 August 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  51. ^ Ebbighausen, Rodion (1 July 2022). "Who is winning Myanmar's civil war?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  52. ^ Davis, Anthony (30 May 2022). "Is Myanmar's military starting to lose the war?". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  53. ^ "'The last fight': With growing support for federal army, Kachin prepares for war". 3 April 2021. Archived from the original on 3 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  54. ^ "UN envoy urges action to prevent Myanmar 'civil war'". The Straits Times via Eleven Myanmar. 1 April 2021. Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  55. ^ "As slaughter of civilians continues, some decide it's time to take up arms". Myanmar Now. 30 March 2021. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  56. ^ "Brotherhood Alliance tells military to stop killings, threatens to abandon ceasefire". Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  57. ^ "The Junta Is Dragging Myanmar Into Full-Blown Civil War". The Irrawaddy. 2 April 2021. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  58. ^ "Communist Party of Burma declares People's War against the junta government". Workers Today. 7 November 2021. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021.
  59. ^ Bociaga, Robert (24 November 2021). "Myanmar's Army Is Fighting a Multi-Front War". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 25 April 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  60. ^ Thar, Hein (11 December 2023). "Red dawn: Myanmar's reborn communist army". Frontier Myanmar. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  61. ^ a b "KIA says more clashes likely despite junta's ceasefire announcement". Archived from the original on 2 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  62. ^ Lynn, Kyaw Ye (27 March 2021). "10 soldiers killed in Myanmar base attack: Rebel group". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  63. ^ "Myanmar Villagers Take Up Homemade Weapons Against Regime's Security Forces". The Irrawaddy. 2 April 2021. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  64. ^ "Myanmar's Mediation Blues: Negotiation or zero-sum game?". BNI. 3 June 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  65. ^ "Ten Myanmar policemen killed in attack by ethnic armies opposed to junta-report". Reuters. 10 April 2021. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  66. ^ "Junta's armed forces launch attack to reclaim base seized by KIA". Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  67. ^ "Myanmar: The small embattled town that stood up to the army". Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  68. ^ "At least 30 regime soldiers killed by Mindat locals in four-day battle". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  69. ^ "Who are the Chinland Defense Force (CDF), Chin Myanmar". Myanmar Speaks. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  70. ^ "Aung San Suu Kyi supporters unveil Myanmar 'national unity government'". Financial Times. 16 April 2021. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  71. ^ "Opponents of Myanmar's junta set up national unity government". France24. 16 April 2021. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  72. ^ "Eleven killed as Myanmar protesters fight troops with hunting rifles, firebombs – media". Reuters. 8 April 2021. Archived from the original on 8 April 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  73. ^ "Can Myanmar's New 'People's Defense Force' Succeed?". The Diplomat. 26 April 2021. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  74. ^ "Myanmar rebels claim police killings as Aung San Suu Kyi appears in court". The Guardian. 24 May 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  75. ^ "Karen Rebel Leader Warns Myanmar Regime of More Fighting". 3 June 2021. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  76. ^ "Karenni resistance fighters open new front against junta". Myanmar Now. 26 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  77. ^ "Myanmar carries out air strikes after militia attacks – witnesses". Reuters. 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  78. ^ "Myanmar Junta Forces and KIA in Fresh Fighting in Northern Myanmar". 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  79. ^ a b Soe Win; Ko Ko Aung; Stylianou, Nassos (1 February 2022). "The deadly battles that tipped Myanmar into civil war". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 February 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  80. ^ "Myanmar Junta Troops Battle Civilian Resistance Fighters in Mandalay". 22 June 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  81. ^ "Myanmar military kills at least 25 people in raid on central town". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  82. ^ Loong, Shona. "The Dry Zone: an existential struggle in central Myanmar". International Institute for Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 14 December 2023. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  83. ^ "၂၀၂၁ မြန်မာစစ်အာဏာသိမ်း – NUG က နိုင်ငံတော်ကို အရေးပေါ်အခြေအနေကြေညာ" [2021 Myanmar military coup – NUG declares state of emergency]. BBC News Myanmar (in Burmese). Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  84. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (7 September 2021). "Myanmar opposition announces 'defensive war' against junta". The Guardian. Yangon. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  85. ^ a b "Post-coup Myanmar in six warscapes". International Institute for Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 28 October 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  86. ^ "Over 1700 Junta Soldiers Killed in Past Three Months, Civilian Government Says". The Irrawaddy. 14 September 2021. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  87. ^ "Over 30 Junta Soldiers Killed In Fierce Weekend Fighting". The Irrawaddy. 27 September 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  88. ^ "Over 40 Myanmar Soldiers Killed in Ambush". The Irrawaddy. 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  89. ^ "Myanmar: Whole town flees amid fierce fighting". BBC. 22 September 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021.
  90. ^ "Myanmar Junta Troops Ambushed in Shan State". The Irrawaddy. 28 September 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  91. ^ "Soldiers capture PDF medics during a raid on resistance base camp in Kalay". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  92. ^ "Hundreds Of Myanmar Junta Informants Killed Or Wounded". The Irrawaddy. 7 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  93. ^ Arnold, Matthew (13 November 2023). "Revolution and the Escalating Collapse of Myanmar's junta". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 25 November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  94. ^ "2,200 Myanmar Junta Soldiers Killed Since January: KNU". The Irrawaddy. 6 July 2022. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  95. ^ Esther J. (18 November 2021). "Dozens of junta troops ambush Moebye PDF outpost". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  96. ^ Swe, Nyein (15 December 2021). "Clashes in Kayah State kill at least four regime soldiers: KNDF". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  97. ^ "Military arrests NLD lawmaker in KNU territory". Myanmar Now. 14 December 2021. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  98. ^ J., Esther (20 December 2021). "More houses torched as junta troops leave Loikaw village". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  99. ^ J., Esther (24 January 2022). "As details of Christmas Eve massacre emerge, calls for justice grow". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  100. ^ "Save the Children confirms staff killed in Myanmar massacre". Al Jazeera. 28 December 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  101. ^ "UN 'horrified' by massacre of dozens of civilians in Myanmar". Al Jazeera. 26 December 2021. Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  102. ^ "Myanmar: Security Council condemns attack killing dozens". UN News. 29 December 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  103. ^ "Both Sides Sustain Casualties as Fighting Rages Between PDFs and Myanmar Junta". The Irrawaddy. 18 February 2022. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  104. ^ "Myanmar: Military onslaught in eastern states amounts to collective punishment". Amnesty International. 31 May 2022. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  105. ^ "Myanmar: Additional armed clashes between military and armed groups likely in Kayah State through mid-May /update 9". Myanmar: Additional armed clashes between military and armed groups likely in Kayah State through mid-May /update 9 | Crisis24. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  106. ^ "Fighting in Myanmar's Kayin state drives thousands to Thai border". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  107. ^ "Regime troops retreat with heavy causalities in Lay Kay Kaw". Burma News International. Archived from the original on 22 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  108. ^ "The Dry Zone". International Institute of Strategic Studies. Archived from the original on 14 December 2023. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  109. ^ "Military raid destroys resistance base in Monywa, PDF says". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  110. ^ "Soldiers target villagers after ambush by Myaing PDF". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  111. ^ "Resistance Fighters Claim To Have Killed Around 50 Myanmar Junta Personnel". The Irrawaddy. 10 February 2022. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  112. ^ "Resistance Fighters Suffer Heavy Losses During Sagaing Clash With Myanmar Junta". The Irrawaddy. 18 February 2022. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  113. ^ "Junta Soldiers Killed; Social Media Users Boycott Myanmar Coup Leader's Parade". The Irrawaddy. 14 February 2022. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  114. ^ "Myanmar Junta Claims to Have Killed 8 Resistance Fighters in Mandalay Raids". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  115. ^ "Burma Army Convoy Attacked In Mohnyin Township". Kachin News Group. 2 December 2021. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  116. ^ Nyein Swe (19 July 2022). "Further clashes between KIA, Myanmar military break out in Hpakant". Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  117. ^ "KIA Targets PMF Gold-mining Operation In Hpakant Township". 25 May 2022. Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  118. ^ "Military deploys Russian-made fighter jets against KIA targets". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  119. ^ Nyein Swe (10 February 2022). "KIA speculates that battles with Myanmar army could intensify in Kachin State". Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  120. ^ "Chinland Defence Force attacks junta soldiers in Matupi". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 1 February 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  121. ^ "Myanmar Junta Convoy Under Repeated Attack in Chin State". The Irrawaddy. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  122. ^ "Well over a quarter of Thantlang now destroyed by fire as rebel group vows to 'drive out' junta soldiers". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  123. ^ "Army truck with soldiers inside blown up in Yangon". Archived from the original on 22 August 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  124. ^ J., Esther (14 December 2021). "Three injured guerrilla fighters among 12 arrested after accidental explosion in Yangon". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  125. ^ "Almost 370 Junta Officials Assassinated Since Coup". The Irrawaddy. 2 February 2022. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  126. ^ "Resistance Fighters Target Homes of Myanmar Junta Pilots After Airstrikes on Civilians". 9 February 2022. Archived from the original on 10 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  127. ^ "Myanmar Resistance Kills Dozens of Junta Soldiers in Three Days of Clashes". The Irrawaddy. 31 January 2022. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  128. ^ "Myanmar Resistance Leader in Sagaing Says Monsoon Will Bring Victories". The Irrawaddy. 13 June 2022. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  129. ^ Martin, Michael (21 June 2022). "Is Myanmar's Military on Its Last Legs?". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  130. ^ "Myanmar's resistance is at risk of believing its own propaganda". The Economist. 19 May 2022. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  131. ^ "Accusations fly after Myanmar bombing kills 1, injures 9". AP NEWS. 1 June 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  132. ^ "Dozens of Myanmar Troops, 11 PDF Fighters Killed in Clash in Shan State". The Irrawaddy. 6 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  133. ^ "Killing Spree". Myanmar Witness. 1 December 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  134. ^ "Son of Slain Villager Recalls Myanmar Junta Massacre in Sagaing". The Irrawaddy. 24 June 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  135. ^ Regan, Helen; Mogul, Rhea (25 July 2022). "Myanmar junta executes leading democracy activists". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 July 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  136. ^ a b "World condemns Myanmar junta for 'cruel' execution of activists". Reuters. 26 July 2022. Archived from the original on 14 February 2023. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  137. ^ "Myanmar: First executions in decades mark atrocious escalation in state repression". Amnesty International. 25 July 2022. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  138. ^ "G7 Foreign Ministers' Statement on the Myanmar Military Junta's Executions". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 31 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  139. ^ "Myanmar army helicopters fire on school, killing 6: reports". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 19 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  140. ^ "Myanmar army helicopters fire on school, killing 13, media and residents say". Reuters. 20 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  141. ^ "Myanmar: Guterres strongly condemns army attacks which left 11 children dead". UN News. 20 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  142. ^ "Myanmar: Statement by the spokesperson on the latest attack against a school in Tabayin | EEAS Website". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  143. ^ "Retired Myanmar Brigadier General Shot Dead by Yangon Resistance Group". The Irrawaddy. Yangon. 27 September 2022. Archived from the original on 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  144. ^ "Junta Troops Clash With Arakan Army in Western Myanmar". The Irrawaddy. 8 February 2022. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  145. ^ "Two Civilians Dead in Clash Between AA, Regime Troops in Myanmar's Rakhine State". The Irrawaddy. 8 February 2022. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  146. ^ "Fighting With AA Claims Heavy Casualties Including Officers, Video Shows". The Irrawaddy. 11 February 2022. Archived from the original on 11 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  147. ^ "Avoiding a Return to War in Myanmar's Rakhine State". International Crisis Group. Brussels, Belgium. 1 June 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  148. ^ Kean, Thomas (7 June 2022). "Arakan Army on Collision Course with the Military in Myanmar's Rakhine State". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 6 January 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  149. ^ Kyaw Hsan Hlaing (3 October 2022). "Insurgents in Myanmar's Rakhine State Return to War on the Military". US Institute of Peace. Archived from the original on 6 January 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  150. ^ Chowdhury, Tanvir (23 September 2022). "Tensions as Bangladesh accuses Myanmar of firing in its territory". Tumbru, Bangladesh: Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  151. ^ a b "Dhaka summons Myanmar ambassador again, protests land, airspace violation". The Daily Star. Dhaka. 19 September 2022. Archived from the original on 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  152. ^ Rashid, Muktadir (21 October 2022). "Bangladesh Credits Chinese Intervention With Stopping Myanmar Border Blasts". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  153. ^ a b c Davis, Anthony (4 November 2022). "Myanmar's NUG going for broke before its time". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 5 November 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  154. ^ Nay Thit (22 October 2022). "Why Myanmar Junta's 'Four Cuts' Arson Strategy is Failing to Quell Resistance". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  155. ^ "Kayah Resistance: 797 Myanmar Junta Troops Killed Last Year". 7 January 2023. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  156. ^ "'Our Objective Was to Force Junta Troops from Southern Kawkareik': KNLA". The Irrawaddy. 26 October 2022. Archived from the original on 1 December 2023. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  157. ^ "Myanmar's KNU attacks key border town of Kawkareik". Mizzima. 22 October 2022. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  158. ^ "Karen Resistance Forces Seize Myanmar Junta Base, Capture 17 Soldiers". The Irrawaddy. 27 October 2022. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  159. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (5 January 2023). "Fighting Breaks Out Near Inle Lake in Southern Shan State". The Irrawady. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  160. ^ "Chin resistance forces fail to take outpost after week-long siege". Myanmar Now. 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  161. ^ Zan, Hein Htoo (18 February 2023). "Chin Resistance: Myanmar Junta Trying to Retake Thantlang". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  162. ^ Nyein Swe (12 August 2022). "Junta forces torch Hpakant Township village after forcing KIA withdrawal, locals say". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 6 January 2024.
  163. ^ "Regime Convoy Stopped In Chin State". BNI. 20 March 2023. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  164. ^ "သံချပ်ကာယာဉ် (၂) စီး ချေမှုန်းနိုင်ခဲ့သော CNDF ပူးပေါင်းတပ်ကို NUG က ကျပ်သိန်း ၄၀၀၀ ချီးမြှင့်". BNI (in Burmese). 5 July 2023. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  165. ^ "Convoy of Myanmar Junta Reinforcements Decimated Near Matupi: Chin Resistance". The Irrawaddy. 27 March 2023. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  166. ^ "Two Dozen Myanmar Junta Troops Killed in Chin State Camp Raid". The Irrawaddy. 11 April 2023. Archived from the original on 5 July 2023. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  167. ^ "Nearly 60 Myanmar Regime Forces Killed in Two Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 24 November 2022. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  168. ^ "Over 70 Myanmar Junta Forces Killed in Three Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 28 November 2022. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  169. ^ "Thousands flee as resistance forces seize three Myanmar military bases in Bago Region". Myanmar NOW. 15 November 2022. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  170. ^ Khin Yi Yi Zaw (6 December 2022). "NUG opens probe into brutal killing of woman by members of its resistance force". Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  171. ^ "Sagaing Resistance Groups Hail River Attacks on Myanmar Junta". The Irrawaddy. 6 January 2023. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  172. ^ "More Than a Dozen Myanmar Junta Troops Killed in Four Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 19 April 2023. Archived from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  173. ^ Nway, Maung Khet (19 April 2023). "ကနီ တာဝါတိုင်စခန်းကုန်းတိုက်ပွဲတွင် စစ်ကောင်စီတပ်သား ၃၀ ဦး သေဆုံးပြီး ၃ ယောက် ထွက်ပြေးလွတ်မြောက်". Mizzima (in Burmese). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  174. ^ "PDF-Mandalay will speed up military operations in 2023". BNI. 27 January 2023. Archived from the original on 6 September 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  175. ^ Oo, Moe (12 April 2023). "Military, PDF engage in escalating battles in Shan-Mandalay border township". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 14 August 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  176. ^ "Dozens of Myanmar Junta Forces Killed in Shan State Clashes: Mandalay PDF". The Irrawaddy. 18 April 2023. Archived from the original on 3 May 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  177. ^ "Yangon Guerrillas Kill Myanmar Junta Money Laundering Chief". The Irrawaddy. 25 March 2023. Archived from the original on 28 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  178. ^ Peck, Grant (21 October 2022). "Myanmar villagers say army beheaded high school teacher". AP News. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  179. ^ "Singers and soldiers among over 60 killed at celebration in Myanmar military air attack, ethnic group says". CBS News. 24 October 2022. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  180. ^ Peck, Grant (23 October 2022). "Ethnic group says Myanmar air attack kills 80 at celebration". ABC News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  181. ^ "Myanmar Junta Torches Home Village of Catholic Cardinal". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  182. ^ Thura Maung (31 December 2022). "Several people killed in Myanmar military ambush of Sagaing resistance checkpoint". Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  183. ^ Thura Maung; Nyein Swe (24 November 2022). "As Sagaing attacks continue, Myanmar junta's scorched earth tactics earn WWII comparison". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  184. ^ "Myanmar Junta Jets Target Kachin Resistance Forces". The Irrawaddy. 25 November 2022. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  185. ^ Maung Shwe Wah (22 November 2022). "Myanmar military torches own police station in Magway". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  186. ^ "In Pictures: Sagaing locals flee Myanmar junta's arson campaign". Myanmar Now. 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  187. ^ Khin Yi Yi Zaw (15 December 2022). "Thousands flee as Myanmar military secures Letpadaung area for Chinese workers". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  188. ^ Maung Shwe Wah (11 March 2023). "In Myanmar's heartland, new horrors from a junta struggling for control". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 11 March 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  189. ^ "Prominent Myanmar Monk Disappears After Being Detained by Regime Forces". The Irrawaddy. 11 March 2023. Archived from the original on 11 March 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  190. ^ J., Esther (16 March 2023). "Bodies of monks killed in Pinlaung massacre showed signs of torture". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  191. ^ Paddock, Richard C. (11 April 2023). "Airstrike in Rebel-Held Region of Myanmar Kills at Least 100". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  192. ^ Head, Jonathan; Yong, Nicholas (12 April 2023). "Myanmar military airstrike: More than 100 people feared dead". BBC. Archived from the original on 12 April 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  193. ^ Aung Zay (17 February 2023). "Hundreds apply for firearms licenses days after introduction of new policy". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  194. ^ "Leaked document confirms Myanmar junta is arming anti-resistance militias". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  195. ^ Htoon, Kyaw Lin (2 August 2018). "Firearms and the law in Myanmar". Frontier Myanmar. Archived from the original on 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  196. ^ "Myanmar junta to let 'loyal' civilians carry licensed arms -media, document". Reuters. 12 February 2023. Archived from the original on 12 February 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  197. ^ Khine Lin Kyaw (2 February 2023). "Myanmar Junta Imposes Martial Law in Resistance Strongholds". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  198. ^ Lipes, Joshua. "Myanmar military, Arakan Army halt hostilities on humanitarian grounds". Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  199. ^ "Myanmar Military and Arakan Army Agree Temporary Truce in Rakhine State". The Irrawaddy. 28 November 2022. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  200. ^ Thein San (6 December 2022). "Tensions remain high in Rakhine State despite military, AA truce". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  201. ^ Nyein Swe (2 December 2022). "Military launches major assault on Kokang base on China-Myanmar border". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  202. ^ Nyein Swe (13 December 2022). "Myanmar army drops massive aerial bombs during northern Shan State clashes, TNLA says". Archived from the original on 31 December 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  203. ^ "Myanmar Junta Calls Ta'ang Army Battle a 'Misunderstanding'". Irrawaddy. 19 December 2022. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  204. ^ "Military Council suffered massive casualties Battle of Namhsan". BNI. 14 December 2022. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  205. ^ "Dozens of Myanmar Junta Forces Killed in Four Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 1 September 2023. Archived from the original on 23 December 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  206. ^ "KNDO-operated drone attack on Military Council camp south of Myawaddy kills 2 commanders of infantry divisions". Karen News. 10 February 2023. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  207. ^ Pan, Pan (8 June 2023). "NUG's first Yangon PDF battalion is preparatory measure: NUG PM Office spokesperson". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  208. ^ Thit, Han (21 June 2023). "Head of security for Yangon International Airport assassinated". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  209. ^ "Yangon Airport security chief assassinated". Mizzima. 22 June 2023. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  210. ^ "Four Military Council Soldiers Arrested During KNLA/ PDF Inspection of Vehicles on Ye-Thanbyuzayat Highway". BNI. 22 June 2023. Archived from the original on 29 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  211. ^ Chan, Juu (22 June 2023). "ရေးမြို့နယ်နှင့် လမိုင်းတွင် ရေးဘီလူးအဖွဲ့ ပစ်ခတ်မှုများပြုလုပ်ရာ စစ်သား ၄ ဦး သေဆုံး". Mizzima (in Burmese). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  212. ^ Chan, Juu (27 June 2023). "ရေးမြို့နယ်တွင် စစ်မှုထမ်းဟောင်း ပျူစောထီးခေါင်းဆောင်အား ရေးဘီလူးအဖွဲ့ပစ်ခတ်ရှင်းလင်း". Mizzima (in Burmese). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  213. ^ Chan, Juu (28 June 2023). "ရေးမြို့နယ်တွင် စကခ (၁၉) လှည့်ကင်းအား ရေးဘီလူးအဖွဲ့ ပစ်ခတ်". Mizzima (in Burmese). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  214. ^ "ရေး၊ လမိုင်းနှင့် ခေါဇာမြို့က စစ်ကောင်စီ ဌာနဆိုင်ရာရုံးများ ပိတ်လိုက်ရ". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 27 June 2023. Archived from the original on 28 June 2023. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  215. ^ "တော်လှန်ရေးအင်အားစုတွေရဲ့ နေပြည်တော်အိပ်မက်". BBC News (in Burmese). 25 August 2023. Archived from the original on 25 August 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  216. ^ "Naypyitaw Junta Airbase Hit by Myanmar Resistance Drone Strike". The Irrawaddy. 18 September 2023. Archived from the original on 20 September 2023. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  217. ^ "Over 3,000 Myanmar Junta Troops Killed in First Half of 2023: NUG". The Irrawaddy. 8 August 2023. Archived from the original on 14 August 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  218. ^ "Over 3,000 Myanmar Junta Troops Killed in First Half of 2023: NUG". The Irrawaddy. 8 August 2023. Archived from the original on 14 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  219. ^ "Myanmar resistance leader claims majority control over territory in the country". The Star. 29 September 2023. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  220. ^ a b "Resistance Forces Attack Regime Checkpoints and Offices in Karen States". Karen News. 3 June 2023. Archived from the original on 21 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  221. ^ J, Esther (23 June 2023). "Karenni BGF battalions confirm role in recent raids on junta outposts". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 29 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  222. ^ "Myanmar Junta Outposts Fall to Karenni Resistance in Kayah State". The Irrawaddy. 26 June 2023. Archived from the original on 28 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  223. ^ J, Esther (28 June 2023). "A lieutenant colonel among dozens of junta soldiers captured in Karenni State, says NUG". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 28 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  224. ^ "Myanmar Junta Suffers Heavy Casualties in Battle for Karen Hilltop". The Irrawaddy. 25 July 2023. Archived from the original on 22 August 2023. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  225. ^ "Military Council Suffers Many Causalities During Operation Kanaung". Shan Herald Agency for News. 14 September 2023. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  226. ^ "Myanmar Junta Loses 76 Soldiers as PDF Kicks Off Special Operation in Mandalay, Shan". The Irrawaddy. 12 September 2023. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  227. ^ Ronan Lee (16 November 2023). "Myanmar's military junta appears to be in terminal decline". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  228. ^ "မြောက်ပိုင်းသုံးဖွဲ့ စစ်ကောင်စီကို အထူးစစ်ဆင်ရေးကြေညာ". Radio Free Asia (in Burmese). 27 October 2023. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  229. ^ "အောက်တိုဘာ ၂၇ ရက်ထိပ်တန်းသတင်းများ – စစ်ဆင်ရေး ၁၀၂၇ စတင်၊ ချင်းရွှေဟော်မြို့ကို ကိုးကန့်တပ် သိမ်းပိုက်". BBC News မြန်မာ (in Burmese). 27 October 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  230. ^ "စစ်ဆင်‌ရေး ၁၀၂၇ – ရှမ်းပြည် မြောက်ပိုင်းက မဟာမိတ်စစ်ဆင်မှု". BBC Burmese (in Burmese). 27 October 2023. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  231. ^ "၁၀၂၇ စစ်ဆင်ရေး – သုံးရက်အတွင်း လေကြောင်းတိုက်ခိုက်မှု အကြိမ် ၄၀". BBC Burmese (in Burmese). 30 October 2023. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  232. ^ "၁၀၂၇စစ်ဆင်ရေး စစ်ကိုင်းအထက်ပိုင်းဝင်ရောက်လာ". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 30 October 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  233. ^ "နောင်ချိုမြို့နဲ့ ဂုတ်တွင်းတံတားကို မဟာမိတ်တပ်တွေ စီးနင်းထိန်းချုပ်". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 30 October 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  234. ^ "ခလရ ၁၄၃ တပ်ရင်းတရင်းလုံး လက်နက်ချခဲ့ကြောင်း ညီနောင်မဟာမိတ် ၃ ဖွဲ့ထုတ်ပြန်". VOA (in Burmese). 1 November 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  235. ^ "ကန်တော်ယန်အထိုင်စခန်းကို သိမ်းပိုက်လိုက်ပြီလို့ KIAပြော". Kachin Waves (in Burmese). 31 October 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  236. ^ "နောင်ချိုမြို့အနီး စစ်ကောင်စီယာဥ်တန်းကို TNLAနှင့် MDY PDFတို့စစ်ဆင်". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  237. ^ "မြို့သုံးမြို့ကျသွားပြီဟု စစ်ကောင်စီဝန်ခံ". DVB (in Burmese). 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  238. ^ "ညီနောင်မဟာမိတ်များ၏ စစ်ဆင်ရေး၇ရက်မြောက်နေ့တွင် နြို့လေးမြို့ကို အပြီးတိုင်သိမ်းပိုက်နိုင်ခဲ့". Ayeyarwaddy Times (in Burmese). 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  239. ^ "နမ့်ခမ်းတစ်မြို့လုံးနီးပါး TNLAထိန်းချုပ်". Myanmar Now (in Burmese). 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  240. ^ "ကလေး- တမူးလမ်းပေါ်ရှိ ခါမ်းပါတ်မြို့ကို PDF သိမ်း". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  241. ^ "၁၂ရက်အကြာတွင် ကွမ်းလုံကို အပြီးတိုင်သိမ်းနိုင်ပြီဟု MNDAAထုတ်ပြန်". The Irrawaddy (in Burmese). 12 November 2023. Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  242. ^ "မုံးကိုးမြို့ကို အလုံးစုံထိန်းချုပ်နိုင်ပြီဖြစ်ကြောင်း MNDAAပြော". Myanmar Now (in Burmese). 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  243. ^ "မုံးကိုးတိုက်ပွဲတွင် တပ်မ(၉၉)ဗျူဟာမှူးအပါအဝင် အရာရှိစစ်သည် ၃၀ကျော် သေဆုံး". DVB (in Burmese). 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  244. ^ "ဂုတ်ထိပ်တံတားအနီးရှိ စစ်တပ်စခန်းကို TNLA/PDFပူးပေါင်းအဖွဲ့တိုက်ခိုက်နေ". Myanmar Now (in Burmese). 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  245. ^ "Myanmar military meets rebel groups with China's help – junta spokesperson". 11 December 2023. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  246. ^ "Brotherhood Alliance Denies Myanmar Junta Peace Deal Rumors". The Irrawaddy. 13 December 2023. Archived from the original on 1 January 2024. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  247. ^ "Myanmar Junta Loses Bases, Scores of Troops in Four Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 20 November 2023. Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  248. ^ "Myanmar rebels seize town from military junta despite China-backed ceasefire". France 24. 16 December 2023. Archived from the original on 23 December 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  249. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (23 December 2023). "Brotherhood Alliance Seizes Another Ethnic Zone in Myanmar's northern Shan State". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 23 December 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  250. ^ "Myanmar's Wa Army Vows Neutrality in Fight Between Regime, Ethnic Alliance". The Irrawaddy. 1 November 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023.
  251. ^ "Operation Taungthaman: Civilians Urged to Flee Township in Myanmar's Mandalay Region". The Irrawady. 20 November 2023. Archived from the original on 2 December 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  252. ^ "Myanmar Junta Base Seized in Mandalay: PDF". The Irrawady. 28 November 2023. Archived from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  253. ^ ""တောင်သမန် စစ်ဆင်ရေး" တစ်လအတွင်း စစ်ကောင်စီတပ်ဖွဲ့ဝင် ၉၅ ယောက်သေပြီး PDF ၁၀ ဦး ကျဆုံး". Mekong News Myanmar (in Burmese). 27 November 2023. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  254. ^ "ကော့ကရိတ်တိုက်ပွဲအတွင်း လက်နက်ကြီးကျလို့ ဒေသခံ ၆ ဦးသေဆုံး". BBC Burmese (in Burmese). 29 October 2023. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  255. ^ "ကရင်နီဒေသ ၁၁၀၇ စစ်ဆင်ရေး တိုက်ပွဲ ဆင်နွှဲ". BBC News မြန်မာ (in Burmese). 9 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  256. ^ "Operation 1107 launched in Karenni State: Three military camps captured – killing at least 70 soldiers". MPA. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  257. ^ "Tens of Thousands Trapped as Myanmar Resistance Strikes Kayah State Capital". The Irrawaddy. 14 November 2023. Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  258. ^ "Over 200 Junta Soldiers Killed in 10-Day Battle for Myanmar's Loikaw: KNDF". The Irrawaddy. 22 November 2023. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  259. ^ "Resistance forces claim control of '85 percent' of Karenni State capital". 19 December 2023. Archived from the original on 26 December 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  260. ^ "Karenni Resistance Says It Controls Most of Pekon in Myanmar's Southern Shan". Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  261. ^ "Almost 40 Myanmar Junta Positions Abandoned in Rakhine: Arakan Army". The Irrawaddy. 14 November 2023. Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  262. ^ "Myanmar rebels says dozens of junta forces surrender, captured". Reuters. 15 November 2023.
  263. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (16 November 2023). "AA Captures Town in Rakhine, Prompting Bombardment by Myanmar Military". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  264. ^ "Arakan Human Rights Defenders Call for Safe Departure Agreement for Residents Trapped in Pauktaw". 21 November 2023. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  265. ^ "Chin Resistance Seizes Indian Border Town From Myanmar Junta". The Irrawaddy. 14 November 2023. Archived from the original on 30 November 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  266. ^ "40 Myanmar army personnel who fled to Mizoram amid conflict sent back". The Indian Express. 15 November 2023. Archived from the original on 2 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  267. ^ Zan, Hein Htoo (5 December 2023). "Myanmar Junta Uses Chemical Warfare: Arakan Army". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  268. ^ "Arakan Army Declares Seizure of Major Myanmar Junta Base". The Irrawaddy. 6 December 2023. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  269. ^ "PDF Seizes Hilltop Base in Chin State, Captures 12 Myanmar Junta Soldiers". The Irrawaddy. 22 November 2023. Archived from the original on 1 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  270. ^ "Another town on the India-Myanmar border falls to the resistance". Myanmar Now. 25 November 2023. Archived from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  271. ^ "Chin allied resistance claims big junta losses in western Myanmar". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 2 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  272. ^ "The First Chin-Written Constitution: A New Template For Self-Determination?". The Irrawady. 26 December 2023. Archived from the original on 26 December 2023.
  273. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (22 November 2023). "Myanmar Regime Prepping 14,000 Troops to Defend Naypyitaw: Sources". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 1 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  274. ^ "Depleted Myanmar Military Urges Deserters to Return to Barracks". Archived from the original on 5 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  275. ^ Peck, Grant (8 December 2023). "Myanmar's army is facing battlefield challenges and grants amnesty to troops jailed for being AWOL". AP News. Archived from the original on 9 December 2023.
  276. ^ Strangio, Sebastian (16 November 2023). "Myanmar Resistance Forces Close In On Key Northeastern Town". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  277. ^ "Ethnic Army Battles to Seize Another Base From Myanmar Junta Near Border With China". The Irrawaddy. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  278. ^ Saw Reh (26 December 2023). "Myanmar Infantry Division Surrenders in Laukkai, Shan State: Reports". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 27 December 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  279. ^ Kyaw Oo (28 December 2023). "Most of Laukkai now under MNDAA control". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 30 December 2023. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  280. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (8 January 2024). "Myanmar's Brotherhood Alliance Seizes Two More Towns in Shan State". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 8 January 2024. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  281. ^ "Defeated Myanmar Generals Given Death Sentences". The Irrawaddy. 23 January 2024. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  282. ^ "Myanmar Junta Asks China to Pressure Brotherhood Alliance to End Offensive". Archived from the original on 9 December 2023.
  283. ^ "Myanmar rebel alliance agrees to ceasefire with ruling military". Reuters. 12 January 2024.
  284. ^ "Brotherhood Alliance, Myanmar Junta Agree to Ceasefire in Northern Shan". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 13 January 2024. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  285. ^ Yuzana (13 January 2024). "Myanmar Junta Breaks Chinese-Brokered Ceasefire: TNLA". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 13 January 2024. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  286. ^ Wei, Brian (23 January 2024). "Firefight Erupts as Myanmar Junta Troops Halt PNLO Arms Convoy in Shan State". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024.
  287. ^ Aung Naing (26 January 2024). "Pa-O, Karenni forces seize control of town in southern Shan State". Myanmar Now. Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  288. ^ "Myanmar junta enforces mandatory military service for young people". Reuters. 11 February 2024.
  289. ^ "Myanmar Junta Loses Nearly 50 Troops, More Bases in Three Days of Resistance Attacks". The Irrawaddy. 10 January 2024. Archived from the original on 15 January 2024. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  290. ^ Peck, Grant (15 January 2024). "Arakan Army resistance force says it has taken control of a strategic township in western Myanmar". AP News. Archived from the original on 25 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  291. ^ "Arakan Army Captures Key Town From Junta in Myanmar's Rakhine State". The Irrawaddy. 25 January 2024. Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  292. ^ "Around 30 Myanmar Junta Personnel Killed in Chin State: Resistance". The Irrawaddy. 17 January 2024. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  293. ^ "India-Myanmar border to be fenced soon, says Home Minister Amit Shah". The Hindu. 20 January 2024. Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  294. ^ a b Alamgir, Nur Uddin (February 2024). "Tension mounts as war rages on BD-Myanmar frontier". Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 5 February 2024. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  295. ^ "95 Myanmar Border Guards take shelter in Bangladesh amid clashes with insurgents". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2024. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  296. ^ "Myanmar's Military Driven Out of Township in Northern Rakhine, Reports Say". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  297. ^ "AA captures six towns so far, two more waits for coming under their control". Narinjara News. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  298. ^ "Police and junta soldiers abandoned their Myebon stations". Narinjara News. 12 February 2024. Archived from the original on 13 February 2024. Retrieved 15 February 2024.
  299. ^ Kyaw Hsan Hlaing (13 February 2024). "A New Era is Dawning For the People of Myanmar's Rakhine State". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  300. ^ Hein Htoo Zan (12 February 2024). "Myanmar military blows bridge to Rakhine State capital as AA advances". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 13 February 2024. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  301. ^ "Arakan Army captures another Rakhine State town, warns locals clashes may continue". Myannmar Now. 16 February 2024. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  302. ^ "ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်မှူးကြီးစိုးဝင်း ကရင်ပြည်နယ်ကို နေ့ချင်းပြန်သွားရောက်" [Vice Senior General goes on day trip to Karen State]. BBC Burmese (in Burmese). 24 January 2024.
  303. ^ Pyae, Nora (14 February 2024). "Resistance fighters seize military's last base in Shadaw Township, Karenni State". Myanmar Now.
  304. ^ Sniper Shoots Dead Myanmar Brigadier-general In Helicopter. January 29, 2024. AFP. Archived 2024-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  305. ^ Myanmar Junta Retakes Town From Civilian Government in Sagaing Region. The Irrawaddy. February 13, 2024 Archived February 13, 2024, at the Wayback Machine
  306. ^ "မွန်ပြည်သစ်ပါတီမှအတွင်းရေးမှူး၊ ဒုစစ်ဦးစီးချုပ်တို့မှ ပါတီတွင်းမှ ယုံကြည်ချက်တူသူများနှင့် လက်တွဲ၍ စစ်ကောင်စီကို တိုက်ခိုက်သွားမည်ဟု ကြေငြာချက်ထုတ်". Narinjara (in Burmese). 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  307. ^ a b "Myanmar spiralling 'from bad to worse, to horrific', Human Rights Council hears". UN News. 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  308. ^ "Myanmar: Increasing evidence of crimes against humanity since coup". UN News. 12 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  309. ^ "'This is robbery': junta's property seizure spree". Frontier Myanmar. 13 September 2022. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  310. ^ a b "Education in the Crossfire in Myanmar: Attacks on Schools, Use by Military and Armed Groups, Skyrocketed after 2021 Takeover". Save the Children. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  311. ^ "Myanmar: Crisis taking an enormous toll on children, UN committee warns". OHCHR. Archived from the original on 8 November 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  312. ^ "Myanmar's post-coup healthcare collapse". The New Humanitarian. 25 March 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  313. ^ "FAO Myanmar Response Overview – June 2022 | United Nations in Myanmar". United Nations. Retrieved 22 September 2022.[permanent dead link]
  314. ^ "Myanmar's hidden hunger". The New Humanitarian. 19 October 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  315. ^ "More than two years on, impact of Myanmar military coup 'devastating'". UN News. 16 March 2023. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 21 March 2023.
  316. ^ "Human Rights Council Hears that the People of Myanmar Continue to Suffer Profound Human Rights Harms and that Serious and Systematic Human Rights Violations and Abuses in Nicaragua are Crimes against Humanity". United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  317. ^ "An illegitimate junta can't fix Myanmar's broken economy". Frontier Myanmar. 15 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  318. ^ a b "Myanmar Coup Makers' Major Challenge is a Failing Economy". FULCRUM. 20 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  319. ^ "Myanmar: Economy". Asian Development Bank. 10 August 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  320. ^ "Sentiments of hopelessness amongst the Burmese population". Children of the Mekong. 14 March 2023. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 14 March 2023.
  321. ^ a b "Exodus from Myanmar as cost-of-living crisis bites". Frontier Myanmar. 20 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  322. ^ "Myanmar Junta's New Banknote causes gold prices, Currency Value to Fluctuate". Radio Free Asia. 25 July 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.[permanent dead link]
  323. ^ "Myanmar currency drops 60% in weeks as economy tanks since February coup". Reuters. 29 September 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  324. ^ Singh, Kanishka (28 September 2021). "World Bank says Delta variant slowing economic growth in East Asia and Pacific". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  325. ^ "'We are losing while we are selling': junta policies bite businesses". Frontier Myanmar. 19 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  326. ^ "Foreign companies in Myanmar struggle with shortage of dollars". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  327. ^ "TimeLINE-Foreign companies withdrawing from Myanmar after coup". Reuters. 27 January 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  328. ^ a b "Myanmar faces blacklisting risk by global financial crime watchdog". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 15 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  329. ^ "Myanmar downplays blacklisting by money laundering watchdog". AP News. 24 October 2022. Archived from the original on 19 November 2022. Retrieved 19 November 2022.
  330. ^ https://www.irrawaddy.com/business/economy/myanmars-post-coup-economic-crisis-in-numbers.html
  331. ^ "Myanmar Junta's Central Bank Had $6.8 Bn in Reserves at 14 Int'l Banks in March".
  332. ^ "Myanmar's Civilian Government Takes Control of Seized Funds".
  333. ^ a b "Springing into action: Myanmar's opposition NUG launches crypto bank".
  334. ^ "Spring Development Bank, Myanmar's First Crypto and Blockchain-Based Bank, Set for Soft Launch". 21 July 2023.
  335. ^ "Manufacturing the Revolution: Weapons and Explosives Craft-Produced by Myanmar's Anti-Junta Fighters". Militant wire. 30 October 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  336. ^ a b "Myanmar Fighters Continue Improvising in Struggle Against Junta". Defense Post. 30 October 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  337. ^ "Anti-Junta Forces in Myanmar Rely on Homemade Weapons". VOA News. 31 July 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  338. ^ "Myanmar Resistance Groups Get Creative to Manufacture Weapons". The Irrawaddy. 31 October 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  339. ^ "Operation 1027 Delivered Three Months of Humiliation to Myanmar's Junta". The Irrawaddy. 26 January 2024.
  340. ^ "U.N. Security Council: Impose Binding Arms Embargo on Myanmar". Fortify Rights. 12 May 2022. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  341. ^ "Myanmar: Two years after coup, global action needed to halt military's 'nationwide assault on human rights'". Amnesty International. 30 January 2023. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  342. ^ "UN Security Council: Adopt Global Arms Embargo on Myanmar". Human Rights Watch. 5 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  343. ^ a b Wee, Sui-Lee (26 October 2022). "Shunned by the West, Russia and Myanmar Form a Partnership of Unequals". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  344. ^ "ASEAN leaders call for timeline on Myanmar peace". Reuters. 11 November 2022.
  345. ^ "Reflections on ASEAN's Special Envoys' Efforts in Myanmar". FULCRUM. 8 February 2023. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  346. ^ "Anwar slams ASEAN on Myanmar: Non-interference not license for indifference". Radio Free Asia. 2 March 2023. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  347. ^ Macan-Markar, Marwaan (12 May 2021). "Thai PM and Myanmar junta chief stay engaged via back channels". Nikkei Asia.
  348. ^ Chau, Thompson. "Myanmar's democratic struggle at stake in Thailand's election". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  349. ^ "Thailand scrambles fighters after Myanmar jet airspace breach". Reuters. 1 July 2022.
  350. ^ "Thailand pledges support of National Ceasefire Agreement in Myanmar". Thai PBS World. 16 October 2023.
  351. ^ Lin, Shin (5 March 2021). "Anger in Myanmar, But Crisis Distant to Singaporeans". Reporting ASEAN.
  352. ^ "Analysis: Quiet Singapore turns up volume on Myanmar as regional fears grow". Reuters. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  353. ^ "Singapore PM backs continued exclusion of Myanmar junta from ASEAN meetings". Reuters. 15 January 2022.
  354. ^ "Supplementary Questions for Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr Vivian Balakrishnan for the Committee of Supply Debate, 27 February 2023". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 27 February 2023.
  355. ^ "Singapore Called On to Stop Feeding Myanmar Junta's War Machine". The Irrawaddy. 24 August 2023.
  356. ^ "Myanmar Junta Imports $1 Billion in Weapons Since Coup: Report". The Irrwaddy. 18 May 2023.
  357. ^ "Myanmar Junta Rages Against E. Timor President After Defection Call". The Irrawaddy. Irrawaddy Publishing Group. 14 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  358. ^ "Myanmar expels East Timor's diplomat in retaliation for supporting opposition forces". AP News. 27 August 2023.
  359. ^ Aparajita Banerjee (13 September 2020). "Myanmar deploys Army troops on Bangladesh border". The Bangladesh Defence Analyst. Bangladesh. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  360. ^ Aparajta Banerjee (15 September 2020). "Bangladesh prepared to face any situation against Myanmar". The Bangladesh Defence Analyst. Bangladesh. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  361. ^ "Another chapter in Bangladesh-Myanmar relations". Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  362. ^ "63 more border guards of Myanmar enter Bangladesh". Prothom Alo English. 7 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  363. ^ "PM for patience regarding war-like situation in Myanmar: Law minister". The Business Standard. 5 February 2024. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  364. ^ "BGB chief suggests suspension of ship movement to St Martin amid Myanmar border conflict". The Business Standard. 7 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  365. ^ "অনির্দিষ্টকালের জন্য সেন্টমার্টিন ভ্রমণে নিষেধাজ্ঞা". NTV Online. 8 February 2024. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  366. ^ Hasib, Nurul Islam (8 February 2024). "Myanmar sending ship to take back BGP members from Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  367. ^ "Thousands feared displaced after armed groups, Myanmar junta forces clash near China border". France24. 31 October 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023. China is a top ally and major arms supplier of the junta, and has refused to label its 2021 power grab a coup.
  368. ^ "Offensive on China Border Seen as 'Milestone' in Myanmar Revolt". Voice of America. 8 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023..
  369. ^ "China, Russia, India enabling Myanmar's military rule: Report". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  370. ^ a b Tower, Jason (24 February 2023). "The Limits of Beijing's Support for Myanmar's Military". United States Institute of Peace. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  371. ^ Aung Zaw (25 March 2023). "Commentary: China Once Again on Wrong Side of History in Myanmar". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  372. ^ "A turning point in Myanmar as army suffers big losses". BBC News. 9 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  373. ^ Ye Myo Hein (1 February 2023). "US Burma Act Uplifts the Resistance Movement in Myanmar". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  374. ^ Klyszcz, Ivan U.; Chambers, Harold (27 January 2024). "The Myanmar Junta Is Losing Its Foreign Backers". The Diplomat.
  375. ^ Michaels, Morgan (November 2023). "Operation 1027 reshapes Myanmar's post-coup war". The International Institute for Strategic Studies.
  376. ^ "Chinese Authorities Issue Arrest Warrants for Criminal Kingpins in Myanmar's Kokang Region". The Diplomat. 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  377. ^ YANG ZEKUN (10 December 2023). "China issues arrest warrants, offers rewards for 10 leaders of telecom fraud gangs in Myanmar". China Daily.
  378. ^ "China Arrest Warrant Names Kokang BGF Founder as Top Suspect in Myanmar Cyber Scam". The Irrawaddy. 11 December 2023.
  379. ^ "China calls for political transformation, national reconciliation in Myanmar". EFE. 7 December 2023.
  380. ^ "A Few Pariah States Congratulate Myanmar on The Anniversary of Its Independence Day". The Irrawaddy. 8 January 2024.
  381. ^ "China, Russia, India enabling Myanmar's military rule: Report". 2 November 2023.
  382. ^ Krishnan, Murali (26 May 2023). "How India is supporting Myanmar's military with arms". Deutsche Welle.
  383. ^ "Burma". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  384. ^ "India issues advisory against traveling to Myanmar's Rakhine state amid escalating crisis". Times of India. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  385. ^ "Расследование Би-би-си: Россия – крупнейший поставщик оружия бирманской хунте" [BBC Investigation: Russia is the biggest arms supplier of the Burmese junta] (in Russian). BBC. 31 May 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  386. ^ "A Few Pariah States Congratulate Myanmar on The Anniversary of Its Independence Day". The Irrawaddy. 8 January 2024.
  387. ^ "Canadian Sanctions Related to Myanmar". Government of Canada. 19 October 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  388. ^ a b c "New Report Shines Light on Flaws in International use of Sanctions in Response to Myanmar Coup". EarthRights International. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  389. ^ "Myanmar: New sanctions welcome, but not enough". Global Witness. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  390. ^ a b Htoo Aung (24 February 2023). "Myanmar's junta-owned companies maintain international economic ties despite sanctions". Myanmar NOW. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  391. ^ a b Martin, Michael (6 February 2023). "What the BURMA Act Does and Doesn't Mean for U.S. Policy in Myanmar". Archived from the original on 19 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.

External links[edit]