Telewizja Polska

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Telewizja Polska S.A.
TypeBroadcast television
Country
AvailabilityNationwide
International
MottoBądźmy razem. TVP (Let's be together. TVP)
OwnerState Treasury of Poland
Liquidator
Daniel Gorgosz[1]
CEO
Tomasz Sygut[2]
Supervisory Board chairman
Piotr Zemła[2]
Official website
tvp.pl

Telewizja Polska S.A. (pronounced [tɛlɛˈvizja ˈpɔlska]; TVP), also known in English as Polish Television, is a public service broadcaster[3][4] in Poland, founded in 1952. It is the oldest and largest Polish television network.[5]

After 2015, when the right-wing populist Law and Justice (PiS) party won the Polish parliamentary election, TVP progressively aligned with the speaking points of the PiS government. In the run-up to the 2023 Polish parliamentary election, TVP was designated as a "propaganda arm" of PiS by European media[4] and as "a factory of hate" by the Polish opposition.[6] However, after the electoral victory of the opposition party the Civic Platform in 2023, a newly-appointed Minister of Culture began a restructuring of the broadcaster and its news segment. On December 27, 2023, the Minister of Culture and National Heritage, due to the President's veto on the financing of the company, placed it in liquidation.[7]

Timeline of Polish TV service[edit]

TVP headquarters at 17 Jana Pawła Woronicza Street, Warsaw, Poland[8]
  • 1935: The PIT (Państwowy Instytut Telekomunikacyjny - National Telecommunications Institute) starts working together with Polish Radio on establishing the first television service.
  • 1937: Completion of the first black-and-white broadcasting station.
  • 1938: Experimental channel launched, regular programming scheduled for 1941.
  • 1939: All equipment destroyed by the German Army.
  • 1947: PIT resumes work on television broadcasting.
  • 1951: First Polish telecast after the Second World War.
  • 1952: Beginning of regular programming.
  • 1957: Broadcast of the first sports event; a boxing match Skra WarsawGwardia Łódź[9]
  • 1958: Newscast Dziennik Telewizyjny ("Journal") was founded.
  • 1970: TVP2 was founded.
  • 1971: Start of colour broadcasting (in SECAM).
  • 1989: Introduction of a teletext service.
  • 1989: Dziennik Telewizyjny was replaced by Wiadomości ("News").
  • 1992: Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna comes into existence upon the separation of television and radio public broadcasting by an act of parliament.
  • 1992: TVP Polonia starts test transmissions.
  • 1993: Polskie Radio i Telewizja (Polish Radio and Television) joins the European Broadcasting Union as an active member (regrouping of OIRT and UER).
  • 1994: Beginning of the change over from SECAM to PAL for all channels except TVP1.
  • 1995: Change over from SECAM to PAL was completed as TVP1 moved to this colour standard.
  • 2003: Change of TVP logotype.
  • 2009: New main headquarters building opened in Warsaw.
  • 2013: Analogue terrestrial television was switched-off.
  • 2020: TVP eSzkoła, TVP Kultura 2 [pl] and TVP Dokument were founded.[10][11][12]
  • 2021: TVP Kobieta [pl] was founded.[13]
  • 2022: TVP ABC 2 [pl] was founded, replacing TVP eSzkoła.
  • 2023: TVP World [pl] were closed. TVP Info was suspended for a few days and the news operation was restructured (break from 20 to 29 December 2023).[14][15]. TVP3 was on hiatus from 20 to 26 December 2023. TVP Parlament was on hiatus from 20 December 2023 to 8 January 2024.

History[edit]

Pre-war period[edit]

The forerunner of television in Poland should be Jan Szczepanik, called the "Polish Edison", who in 1897 patented at the British Patent Office (British patent no. 5031).[16] as the "telectroscope" defined as an "apparatus for reproducing images at a distance using electricity".[17]

In 1929, Stefan Manczarski constructed a mechanical television apparatus based on two synchronously rotating Nipkow disks, on the transmitting and receiving sides. The television signal was transmitted via an electric cable. The device only transmitted a still image. Stefan Manczarski called his invention "a method of television transmission of images via wire and radio."

Experiments were also conducted by a team of scientists and engineers in 1931 at the Polish Radio station in Katowice. Transmitting and receiving equipment according to the JL Baird system using a Nipkow shield. Both mechanical television transmitting and receiving devices were driven by one common engine, ensuring full synchronization of both units. The signal was transmitted by cable within one laboratory. The experimental work was led by Eng. Twardawa.[18]

Only later, work on launching a television station in Poland began in 1935 in Warsaw at the State Telecommunications Institute and Polish Radio. In 1937, an experimental television station began operating on the sixteenth floor of the Prudential skyscraper. Władysław Cetner became the station manager.

Equipment analyzing the image at the PR Experimental Television Station from 1939 in Warsaw

In 1937, an audio transmitter was installed, and at the beginning of 1938, a video transmitter. Moreover, in 1938, a 16-meter-high tower structure was built on the roof of the "skyscraper", as it was called, on which a tubular mast for an 11-meter-high transmitting antenna was mounted. The antenna was located 87 m above the ground, which ensured reception of the video signal at a distance of 20 km and audio signal 30 km from the transmitting antenna. Test television broadcasts took place on October 5, 1938 and August 26, 1939 in Warsaw with the participation of Mieczysław Fogg.[19]

It was a mechanical television station broadcasting under the 120-line standard. It carried, among others: a telecine film "Barbara Radziwiłłówna" with Jadwiga Smosarska in the main role, and at that time work on 343-line electronic television was in progress. The development of research on television, which was very advanced (the launch of a permanent service was expected in 1940), was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II.

Post-war period[edit]

Kazimierz Rudzki presents a "Leningrad" brand television receiver

Work on Polish Television was resumed in 1947. Work at the National Telecommunications Institute (later the Institute of Telecommunications) was carried out under the supervision of Janusz Groszkowski and Lesław Kędzierski. On December 15, 1951, the exhibition "Radio in the fight for peace and progress" was opened, during which trial television broadcasts with the participation of artists were shown, the daily broadcast of the television program lasted until January 20, 1952.[20] In 1952 a studio was established at the Ratuszowa 11 street in Warsaw, and the first television program team was established.[19] The first program was broadcast on October 25, 1952 at 7:00 p.m. (on the eve of the Sejm elections). Then, a 30-minute montage of artistic forms with the participation of Marta Nowosad, Jerzy Michotek, Witold Gruca and Jan Mroziński was broadcast from the Institute of Telecommunications, which was received on 24 Leningrad receivers located in clubs and community centers. The first announcer was Maria Rosa-Krzyżanowska.[21] Subsequent broadcasts took place on November 15, 1952 (excerpts of Lalka with Nina Andrycz in the main role were shown) and December 5, 1952 (excerpts of The King and the Actor from the Chamber Theater in Warsaw).[22]

Three months later - on January 23, 1953 - a regular broadcast of the Polish television program was initiated (half an hour once a week).[19] On July 22, 1954, the Experimental Television Center was launched with its own journalistic team.[23] The program was broadcast from the former bank building at Plac Powstańców Warszawy 7,[23] specially rebuilt and enlarged after war damage to meet the needs of the newly established institution. The center's program was initially broadcast once a week on Fridays, from April 1, 1955 - twice (on Tuesdays and Fridays), from November 1, 1955 - three days a week (on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays),[23] and from January 1, 1956 - four days a week (additionally on Sundays). Exceptionally, daily broadcasts took place during the broadcast of the Peace Races and the 5th World Festival of Youth and Students in 1955.[20]

On April 30, 1956, the Warsaw Television Center (Warszawski Ośrodek Telewizyjny)[24] was opened, which provided access to TV programs to a larger group of viewers. WOT broadcast five days a week. On May 1, 1956, the Television Transmission Center began operation with a transmitting station located in the Palace of Culture and Science and an antenna on the top of the spire at a height of 227m. The station's range was approximately 55 km.

One-channel period[edit]

Station identification boards (idents) of each city, 1950s and 1960s

The real beginning of Polish Television was the creation of the Television Program Team at the Polish Radio on August 1, 1958. Two years later (December 2, 1960), the "Polish Radio and Television" Committee was established. From then on, Polish Radio and TVP had equal status. The first head of the Radio Committee (a position equivalent to a minister) was Włodzimierz Sokorski (the heads of the radio and television departments had the rank of deputy ministers). On February 1, 1961, the daily broadcast of the television program began. At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, seven TVP regional centers were established (with their own studios) in:

On July 18, 1969, the Radio and Television Center in Warsaw was opened at Woronicza Street.[25] Large financial outlays were incurred to create it, and the technicians also managed to assemble high-class television equipment.[19]

Two-channel period[edit]

The first ground satellite communication station in Poland

On October 2, 1970, the second national television network was officially launched . From the beginning of its existence, TVP2 focused mainly on cultural and entertainment programs (including Studio 2).

The opening of Poland to the West - characteristic of Gierek's era - allowed Polish television to have access to modern technologies from the free world. The first result of the cooperation was the broadcasting of the first color program on July 22, 1971, using the French SECAM system - it was an adaptation of Anton Chekhov's monodrama On the Harm of Tobacco Smoking.[26] Over time, it was the standard adopted in all countries (except Romania) of the Eastern Bloc. Initially, the program was broadcast in color once a week, from December 6, 1971, the proceedings of the PZPR congress were broadcast every day in color[27] (the first cyclical color broadcasts in Europe were broadcast in 1967), but due to the lack of receivers and their high cost, color television was not available to most Polish television viewers at that time.

In 1972, after Maciej Szczepański took over the position of president of TVP, approximately 12,000 people lost their jobs at the corporation.[28]

On November 1, 1975, the first terrestrial satellite communication station in Poland was put into operation in Psary-Kąty (Świętokrzyskie Mountains), which significantly expanded TVP's broadcasting capabilities.

After a long break in the creation of new television centers, on January 12, 1985, a local television branch in Lublin was established, TVP3 Lublin. On January 1, 1989, Telegazeta was established, the first teletext service in Poland.

Democracy[edit]

Grażyna Torbicka, longtime TVP presenter

The socio-political changes at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s also resulted in television reform. In 1987, TVP lost its monopoly on broadcasting television in Poland, when the first private Polish television station, "Ursynat", was established in the Ursynów district of Warsaw.[29] In 1989, another station, Sky Orunia, was established, broadcasting in Gdańsk until 1996,[30] and on February 6, 1990, PTV Echo was established, broadcasting in Wrocław and the surrounding area until March 8, 1995,[31][32] and then on December 5, 1992 Polsat started broadcasting,[33] which on October 5, 1993 received a license for terrestrial broadcasting in Poland[34] from the National Broadcasting Council and on January 27, 1994 a license for nationwide commercial television.[35] In the early 1990s, it was decided to completely switch from the SECAM system to the PAL system, in which the two national TVP networks adopted it (later TVP Polonia and TVP the regional stations also switched to this system). On January 1, 1993, together with Polish Radio, TVP became a member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). At the same time, since the 1990s, many TVP presenters and journalists began to leave public television, moving to commercial television (including Polsat and TVN).

After 1989, TVP news programs were accused of being subject to political influence depending on who was in power in Poland, as well as being biased and lacking objectivity.[36] In 1997, the first theme channel of public television was launched - Tylko Muzyka, but it ended broadcasting a year later due to formal and legal reasons. In 1998, the official website of Telewizja Polska was created - www.tvp.pl.[37] In 2004, the first edition of the New Year's Eve musical show organized by TVP took place under the name Sylwester z Gwiazdami (New Year's Eve With the Stars). On April 24, 2005, another theme channel - TVP Kultura - started broadcasting. In the following years, Telewizja Polska launched further theme channels (November 18, 2006 - TVP Sport; May 3, 2007 - TVP Historia; October 6, 2007 - TVP Info; which replaced TVP3; December 6, 2010 - TVP Seriale; April 15, 2013 - TVP Rozrywka; 1 September 2013 – TVP Regionalna; February 15, 2014 – TVP ABC[38]). In 2008, Telewizja Polska started broadcasting in HD quality, and on August 6 of the same year, TVP HD started broadcasting . On June 16, 2011, the first online theme channel was launched - TVP Parliament . On June 1, 2012, two nationwide networks, TVP1 and TVP2, started broadcasting in HD quality. Polish Television was working on introducing 3D images to its channels.[39] As part of digital terrestrial television and the offers of selected cable and satellite operators, it enables the use of hybrid television using the TVP Hybrid Platform.[40][41] There were already plans to launch further channels, TVP Nauka, TVP 4K and TVP Muzyka.[42] Since 1993, the legal status of the broadcaster has been defined by the Broadcasting Act, according to which Telewizja Polska is obliged to implement "a public mission ... by offering ... various programmes and other services in the field of information, journalism, culture, entertainment, education and sport, characterized by pluralism, impartiality, balance and independence as well as innovation, high quality and integrity of the message."[43]

In 2018, Telewizja Polska started broadcasting, as one of the three largest television stations, in 4K quality under the name TVP 4K.[44] On September 17, 2019, the TVP Wilno channel intended for Poles living in Lithuania began broadcasting.[45] In March 2020, the decision to close educational institutions due to the pandemic, Telewizja Polska initiated the "Szkoła z TVP" project in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education.[46] On November 19, 2020, the TVP Dokument channel began broadcasting,[47] on March 8, 2021 - TVP Kobieta,[48] and in 2022 - TVP Nauka.[49]

2023 takeover[edit]

On 19 December 2023, the Sejm passed a resolution on "restoring the legal order and the impartiality and integrity of the public media and the Polish Press Agency" with 244 votes in favor. There were 84 votes against and 16 abstentions.[50] The following day, Minister of Culture Bartłomiej Sienkiewicz dismissed the authorities of public media.[51] 20 December also saw the termination of TVP Info, TVP 3, and TVP World's programming, with the associated broadcasts being instead switched to those of other TVP stations. News programming that would normally air on TVP 1 (Teleexpress, Wiadomości) and TVP 2 (Panorama) was instead replaced by standby sequences of the stations' respective logos.[52][53][54][55]

On 21 December 2023, at 19:30, TVP broadcast its first evening news bulletin by the new team of journalists, under the title 19.30.[56]

International cooperation[edit]

In 2012, TVP signed an agreement with the BBC, under which they will work together on film and television productions.[57][needs update]

The French-German TV liberal arts network ARTE cancelled a 15-year cooperation with TVP,[58] when it learned in February 2009 that TVP's general director, Piotr Farfał, was a member of the League of Polish Families, which opposed Arte's "philosophy based on intercultural exchange"[59] and "the party that TVP's chairman is presently connected with does not share European values".[60] It was again cancelled in January 2016 after an amendment of the media law in Poland, which caused fears of a lack of pluralism and independence of TVP.[61]

Viewership[edit]

In September 2020, TVP's "Wiadomości" was the most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.66 million viewers a day.[62]
In February 2021, TVP's "Wiadomości" was second most popular news program in Poland, with an average of 2.41 million viewers a day.[63]

Logo history[edit]

TV channels[edit]

DTT in Poland[edit]

LCN Channel Logo Broadcast standard Start of terrestrial broadcast
1 TVP1 bezramki DVB-T2 MUX-3 25 October 1952 [64]
2 TVP2 2 October 1970
3 TVP3 bezramki 5 September 1994 [65]
19 TVP Polonia bezramki DVB-T2 MUX-6 9 December 2011[66][67]
20 TVP Nauka [pl] bezramki 3 October 2022
24 TVP Dokument 19 November 2020
27 TVP Rozrywka bezramki 15 April 2013[68]
28 Alfa TVP [pl] bezramki 24 January 2023[69][70]
29 TVP ABC Logo TVP ABC DVB-T2 MUX-3 15 February 2014
30 TVP Kultura 27 October 2010 [71]
31 TVP Historia 27 October 2010
32 TVP Sport 7 June 2018[72]
34 TVP Info 6 October 2007[73]
35 TVP Kobieta [pl] DVB-T2 MUX-6 8 March 2021
36 Belsat 24 January 2023[70]
88 TVP GO (service) bezramki HbbTV / DVB-T2 MUX-3 1 February 2022
91 TVP World[74]
(currently off-air,
replaced by TVP Polonia)
28 March 2023
92 TVP ABC 2 [pl] 10 November 2021[75]
93 TVP Historia 2 [pl] 1 March 2021[76]
94 TVP Kultura 2 [pl] 26 June 2020[77]
95 Pershyi (partnership) HbbTV / DVB-T MUX-8 1 March 2022

DTT in Lithuania[edit]

Channel Logo Broadcast standard
TVP Wilno [pl] DVB-T MUX-2
DVB-T MUX in
South-East Lithuania
TVP Polonia bezramki
TVP World [pl]
(currently off-air,
replaced by TVP Polonia)
TVP Info
TVP Historia 2 [pl]
Belsat
TVP Kultura 2 [pl] DVB-T MUX in
South-East Lithuania

Flagship channels[edit]

Thematic channels[edit]

  • TVP Info: news channel. Broadcasts 24 hours per day. Full HD introduced 30 September 2016.
  • TVP Sport: sport channel. Broadcasts 23,5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 12 January 2014.
  • TVP ABC: Children's channel. Broadcasts 18 hours per day. Full HD introduced 28 March 2022.
  • Alfa TVP [pl]: teenager's channel broadcasts 18 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 20 December 2022.
  • TVP HD: the best productions of TVP. Broadcasts 23,5 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 6 August 2008. Pay channel (available in pay package TVP VOD+). Unofficially announced plans to transfer these channels to free-to-air broadcasting.
  • TVP Kultura: high-brow culture channel. Broadcasts 22–23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 23 October 2019.
  • TVP Historia: focusing on history. Broadcasts 20,5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 27 February 2023.
  • TVP Dokument: documentary movies channel. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 19 November 2020.[78]
  • TVP Nauka [pl]: focusing on science and nature. Broadcasts 21 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 3 October 2022.
  • TVP Rozrywka: focusing on entertainment. Broadcasts 23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 23 February 2022.
  • TVP Seriale [pl]: focusing on series. Broadcasts 23,5 hours per day. Full HD introduced 27 February 2023. Pay channel (available in pay package TVP VOD+). Unofficially announced plans to transfer these channels to free-to-air broadcasting.
  • TVP Kobieta [pl]: focusing on programmes aimed at women. Broadcasts 22 hours per day. Start broadcast in Full HD from 8 March 2021.
  • TVP ABC 2 [pl]: children's channel broadcasts 18 hours per day (available in HbbTV).
  • TVP Historia 2 [pl]: focusing on history. Broadcasts 20 hours per day (available in HbbTV in Poland and DVB-T in Lithuania and South-East Lithuania).
  • TVP Kultura 2 [pl]: high-brow culture channel. Broadcasts 21 hours per day (available in HbbTV in Poland and DVB-T in South-East Lithuania).

Internet channels[edit]

  • tvpsport.pl: Broadcasts of sporting events not included in the linear TV-channel schedule. Available on own portal (sport.tvp.pl/transmisje), mobile or smart-TV apps and TVP GO HbbTV app.
  • TVP Parlament: Broadcasts of parliamentary sessions and state events. Available on own portal (tvpparlament.pl/transmisje), TVP GO mobile app and streaming service TVP VOD.

International channels[edit]

  • TVP Polonia – Polish-language channel presenting news and programming for the Polish diaspora (the so-called Polonia) in worldwide and retransmits selected TVP programming. Full HD introduced 1 September 2020.
  • Belsat – channel in the Belarusian language presenting news and subject-specific programming for the people in Belarus. Broadcasts 19–21 hours per day, included international TV-programm "Vot Tak"[79] and rebroadcasting of the Ukrainian TV-marathon "United News". Available on DTT in Lithuania (DVB-T) and Poland (HEVC, DVB-T2). Full HD introduced on 17 February 2022.[80][81][82]
  • TVP Wilno [pl] – channel presenting news and programming for the Polish-speaking minority in the Vilnius region of Lithuania, available in DVB-T in this country. Broadcasts 22–23 hours per day. Full HD introduced 10 September 2021.

Streaming platforms[edit]

  • TVP VOD: the main streaming service with linear TV-channels (all TVP channels, Belsat and streams from TVP Parlament), content library and premium content for paid subscribers (pay packages TVP VOD+, Strefa ABO and Filmy na życzenie). After the restart in October 2022, premieres produced specifically for this service began to appear. The list of linear TV-channels disappeared after the restart, but return to service on 1 June 2023. Available on own portal (vod.tvp.pl) and any apps and devices.
  • TVP GO: broadcast of linear TV-channels (Included Belsat and streams from TVP Parlament. Except TVP HD, TVP Seriale and TVP World) and content library. Available on HbbTV and mobile apps.
  • TVP Stream: broadcast of selected TV-channels (TVP3, TVP Polonia, TVP Wilno, TVP World, TVP Info, Alfa TVP, TVP Kultura 2, TVP Historia 2, TVP ABC 2 and selected programms from TVP1 and TVP2). Available on own portal (stream.tvp.pl). This service will close soon and integrate with TVP VOD.[83]

Upcoming channels[edit]

  • TVP 4K [pl] (regular broadcasting): Full-time Ultra HD channel. Currently only broadcasts during special sporting events.

Suspended[edit]

  • TVP World (2021-2023): English-language channel for international audience. Currently off-air from 20 December 2023, but unofficially announced return to broadcast,[84] but date of the return to broadcast may be delayed.[85][86][87][88] In the end of February 2024 TVP press-service confirmed plans for return to broadcast, without specifying a restart date.[89][90]

Former channels, services and projects[edit]

Controversies[edit]

Before 2015, the PiS (then opposition) often criticized TVP of siding with government (PO-PSL)[91][92][93] or even compared it to communist propaganda[94] In 2015, the government passed a law allowing it to directly appoint the head of TVP.[95] Since then, TVP has displayed bias towards the Law and Justice (PiS) party (then government), and was compared by critics with propaganda of the former Communist regime.[96][97][98] TVP has also faced criticism for its portrayal of LGBT people, the political opposition, Jews, and other groups as a shadowy conspiracy seeking to undermine Poland.[99][100] In 2018, The Economist stated: "the [TVP] anchors... praise PiS slavishly while branding its critics treacherous crypto-communists.[101]

In July 2016 Politico.eu criticized it for strong pro-government bias.[102]

In 2017, TVP triggered a hate campaign against Polsat journalist Dorota Bawolek, following a question the Bawolek asked to the European Commission in Brussels regarding a controversial judicial reform in Poland.[103] The hate campaign resulted in death threats against the journalist. The European Commission expressed its condemnation of the online hate campaign caused by TVP[104] and the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe issued an alert to the Polish authorities in respect of the hate campaign against Bawolek.[105]

The press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders wrote in its 2019 assessment of Polish press freedom that "many blamed state-owned TV broadcaster TVP's 'hate propaganda' for Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz's murder in January 2019.".[106] Ahead of the 2019 European parliament elections, TVP ran 105 segments of the election of which 68 of 69 focused on the ruling party were positive and all 33 about the opposition were negative, according to a study by the Society of Journalists.[97] Polish political scientist and anti-racism activist Rafał Pankowski stated, "I am old enough to remember Communist-controlled television in the 1980s, and I can safely say that what we have now is cruder, more primitive, and more aggressive than anything that was broadcast at that time."[97] This contrasts with the testimonies that killer of Pawel Adamowicz was reading Gazeta Wyborcza, Dziennik Bałtycki, Polityka and Wprost[107] and watched TVN,[108] and Polsat but not TVP[109]

TVP was heavily criticized in the run-up to the 2020 Polish presidential election, being described as the "mouthpiece" of the government[110] and as "peddl[ing] government hate speech" by the organization Reporters Without Borders.[111] The state television broadcast a segment of Wiadomości called Trzaskowski spełni żydowskie żądania? ("Will Trzaskowski meet Jewish demands?") regarding the Civic Platform candidate Rafał Trzaskowski. A complaint was made by the American Jewish Committee, Union of Jewish Religious Communities, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, to the Polish Media Ethics Council [pl] regarding antisemitism in the program. The Council concluded not only were anti-semitic statements made in the show, it did not uphold journalistic standards: Wiadomości "turned into an instrument of propaganda of one of the candidates in this election".[112][113][114][115][116][117]

In 2020, the station was ordered to retract a documentary, Inwazja, released just before the 2019 elections. Comparing the LGBT movement unfavorably to the Swedish Deluge and Communism, the documentary claimed that there is an "LGBT invasion" of Poland and that LGBT organizations have the goal of legalizing pedophilia. It was found to defame the Campaign Against Homophobia organization. Ombudsman Adam Bodnar stated, "The material not only reproduces stereotypes and heightens social hatred towards LGBT people, but also manipulates facts."[118][119][97][120] Following the change of government in the 2023 Polish parliamentary election, a TVP host formally apologized to the LGBT community for attacks broadcast against them.[121]

According to Timothy Garton Ash, "the broadcaster has descended into the paranoid world of the far right, where spotless, heroic, perpetually misunderstood Poles are being conspired against by dark, international German-Jewish-LGBT-plutocratic forces meeting secretly in Swiss chateaux."[99] TVP president Jacek Kurski rejected the contention that the organization violated broadcasting law,[122][123] and conservative media commentator and former TVP employee Jacek Kurski says the station "deserves recognition" for its "consistent promotion of patriotism and pro-state thinking".[124][125]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://centruminformacji.tvp.pl/15779987/likwidator
  2. ^ a b Sienkiewicz, Bartłomiej (2023-12-25). "Oświadczenie Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego reprezentującego Skarb Państwa - właściciela 100% akcji w spółce Telewizja Polska S.A." [Statement of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage representing the State Treasury - owner of 100% of shares in the company Telewizja Polska S.A.]. Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego (in Polish).
  3. ^ Koper, Anna; Pawlak, Justyna (13 October 2023). "Polish public broadcaster faces accusations of bias as election looms". Reuters. Retrieved 20 December 2023.
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  6. ^ Kanter, James (30 June 2023). "Polish State Media Gone Rogue". EU Scream. Brussels. Retrieved 20 December 2023.
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  12. ^ ""Ważna chwila dla fanów dobrego dokumentu". Startuje nowy kanał TVP [WIDEO]". www.tvp.info. November 18, 2020. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023.
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  14. ^ "Polish public media chiefs dimissed, news channel stops broadcasting | Reuters". Reuters. Retrieved 20 December 2023.
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External links[edit]